Borough History of Bethlehem

Borough History of Bethlehem by C.O. Zigenfuss, Esq.

 AWAY beyond the period (1845), when Bethlehem became a borough, in the 
age of which Bishop de Schweinitz elsewhere so fully writes, the brave men 
White, Hazard, Miner and others of the pioneers of the anthracite coal 
interest, had found "the black diamond," and had sent down by the town, 
upon the bosom of the Lehigh, a craft laden with twenty-four tons of the 
fossil fuel. 

  This craft was an "Ark", so called popularly, a rude frame of hemlock, 
carrying to Philadelphia the first load of Pennsylvania's richest resource, 
This vessel passed Bethlehem toward dusk of August 9th, 1814, and "was, 
prophetic of fleets of argosies, which in after time swept past the site of 
the ancient village, all freighted heavily with the spoils of a long past 
carboniferous age." These shipments were made by the "Lehigh Coal Mine 
Company," which was organized as early as 1792, a period when some few men 
already dreamed that coal wedded to iron, would yield an offspring of gold, 
Later, in 1818, another company came into existence in "The

  Two Years later, in 1820, these two corporations consolidated their 
interests, resulting in "The Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company," a concern 
that has had a long and useful career of varied success and reverses, whose 
fortunes seem at present to be decidedly in the ascendency. The 
consolidation led to the construction of the canal, opened in the autumn of 
1829, when, on completion of the Delaware Division, arks were abandoned for 
the more sightly and more profitable (being much safer) canal-boat, and 
these were the pioneers of a modern carboniferous age.

  The operations of this great company, in the mining of coal, and in it, 
transportation through the valley of the Lehigh, infused a new lift, along 
its entire length, to the very outlet, creating it great spirit of unrest. 
Already men had experimented with the newly found fuel in the smelting of 
iron. This was first successfully accomplished at Catasauqua, in 1840, the 
site of the present Crane Iron Company's extensive furnaces, over which the 
veteran experimenter, David Thomas, still keeps a watchful eye.

  He was the first to think of the "hot-blast," the first to apply it, 
and, unlike the fortunes of the majority of discoverers, has profited 
thereby; having seen Dot only an immense business grow up around him, but 
having acquired largely of the Sold that the union of anthracite coal and 
iron, through the instrumentality of the hot-blast, has yielded.

  A few year later the exclusive policy of the Moravians gave way, and, 
seven years later, in 1847, the congregations farms on the south side of 
the river were sold; a more liberal spirit possessed the minds of its 
people, and Bethlehem passed along with the match of improvement,, that 
came thick and fast after 1845. How rapidly that portion, then used only as 
terming land, grew, is fully detailed under the beads of "South Bethlehem" 
find "Fountain Hill."

  Bethlehem was incorporated into a borough, under an Act entitled, "An Act 
to incorporate the village of Bethlehem, in the county of Northampton, into 
a borough, which was approved by Francis R. Shunk, on March 6th, 1845, with 
the following limits and bounds: 

   "Beginning at the river Lehigh, at the fording place immediately above 
Jones Island; thence up the said river to the mouth of Monocacy Creek; 
thence along said creek to the stone bridge at the Hanover township line in 
Northampton county; thence along the centre of the upper road, leading from 
Allentown to Easton, to the intersection of the road leading from Nazareth 
to Philadelphia; thence along the centre of the road last mentioned to the 
river Lehigh, to the place of beginning."

  These were extended by an Act approved by Gov. James Pollock, March 24th, 
1856, so as to include the territory embraced to the following boundaries:

  "Beginning at a stone the southeast corner of said borough, on the north
side of the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company canal, it being a joint
corner of lands of the said Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company and the
lands of the congregation of the United Brethren in the borough of 
Bethlehem and its vicinity; thence through the lands of P. H. Goepp the 
congregation of the United Brethren  William Luckenbach, now or late of 
Aaron w. Radle  Y, F. Fenner north, five, and one-half degree; east, two 
hundred and seventy-eight perches; thence through the lands of F. Fenner, 
John Fritag, John J. Levers and Daniel Desh, to the forks of the Easton and
Nazareth road where it reaches the present east line of the borough, north,
eighty-four and one-half degrees west, a distance of one hundred and four
and one-fourth perches. Also that this territory so included shall 
constitute a part of the election and school district, of the borough of 
Bethlehem, and shall be subject to all laws relating to said borough."

  These boundaries have not since been changed. Under the charter, the 
borough was organized in March, 15, with C. A. Luckenbach, the, present 
President of the First National Bank, as Burgess. In 1847, by special Act, 
the authorities were permitted to borrow $1,500 for the purpose of grading 
streets, etc.

  The growth of the town was very rapid, a village of eight hundred souls 
in 1840, showing, in the census of 1850, as a borough containing two 
hundred and nineteen dwellings, three hundred and twenty-nine families, and 
a total population of 1,516 souls.

  Following is, the assessment for the year 1853:

Number of acres of land, 194, with all  other real estate assessed at 
Valuation                                                               $309,197
Valuation of Occupations and Professions                                  56,250
Excess of ditto                                                            4,285
Money's at Interest                                                      572,514
Value of Horses, and Cattle (96 horses, 83 cows)                           6,507
Value of Stocks in Banks                                                  52,085
Value of Pleasure Carriage (44 carriages)                                  1,865
Excess of Furniture                                                        1,000 
  Total Amount of Valuation                                           $1,994,269
Sales Tax                                                              $3,008 44
County Tax                                                              2,646 24
School Tax                                                              2,870 00
   Total                                                               $8,524 68

Number of Taxables                                                           405
Houses                                                                       207
Schools                                                                        3
Teachers                                                                       6
Scholars                                                                     185

  There were at that time, in the borough, thirty-two stores of various 
kinds., viz:
Wm. L. Brown

Grider & Lerch

John Lerch, Jr.

Jacob Rice

Wm. Luckenbach

Lewis F. Beckel

A. Wolle & Co.

Simon Rau

Shimer & Hillman

M. L. Reich

Joseph Stopp

M. Beidler

Henry G. Lange

John M. Micksch

Chas. W. Rauch

A. L. Belling

Charles Bodder

Jas. T. Borhek

J. F. Erwin

Henry B. Luckenbach

Henry J. Carter

B. E. Peissert

Adam Giesing

H. B. Jones

Charles L. Knauss

F. I. Krausse

P. Ricksecker

F. Borhek

A. H. Rauch

W. F. Miller

Herman Yost

Christian Lange


  The three public houses were kept by Luckenbach & Anderson, John J. 
Levers, and Caleb Yohe; two grist-mills, owned by Jacob Luckenbach, and F. 
Zoller, and a distillery and brewery, both owned and run by Joseph Benke.

  The population of the borough had increased to 2,866 in 1860, and to 
4,512 in 1870. Since then the ratio of increase has been fully as large. In 
1870, one Indian was included in its census.

  In the same year that the borough was incorporated, there came to 
Bethlehem, Dr. F. A. Oppelt, a German, of excellent taste and a high order 
of intelligence. Attracted by the beautiful location of the town, and 
especially by the Mountain Spring, with its pure, sparkling water, he 
located here, and the following year opened the first public institution, 
on the south side of the river, This was a Hydropathic Asylum. Dr., Oppelt 
continued in the work for twenty-nine years, until 1875, when the property 
passed into the hands of the Trustees of St. Luke's Hospital, a noble 
institution of charity, conducted under the auspices of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church. While the Water Care was in existence, over 3,000 persons 
were treated in it, of whom but five died in the institution.

  In 1865, the Lehigh and Susquehanna Railroad, the new rail line 
constructed by the old Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company, was also made 
tributary to the commercial interests of Bethlehem, and with its leased 
branch, the Lehigh and Lackawanna Railroad, has; greatly benefitted the 
town. The latter road has a brilliant future, when it will be, extended 
through the upper sections of the county to intersect with the Delaware, 
Lackawanna and Western Road beyond the Blue Mountains. At present it 
extends to Chapman, the site of the celebrated Chapman Slate Quarries. The 
road was built mainly through the enterprise of Hon. Charles Brodhead, of 
Bethlehem. Originally it was leased to the Lehigh and Susquehanna Railroad 
Company, and subsequently with that road leased to the Central Railroad of 
New Jersey. The Lehigh and Susquehanna Company have erected a fine brick 
depot on Main street, and a neat frame depot at Bethlehem Junction, the 
intersection of that road with the Lehigh and Lackawanna Railroad.

  With the advent of the North Pennsylvania Railroad, new life was infused 
into the capitalists at Bethlehem, and the erection of an iron works was 
projected, and this resulted in the magnificent mills, steel works and 
furnaces of the Bethlehem Iron Company, a history and description of which 
will be found elsewhere. The works have been most successful, and have 
contributed largely to the prosperity of the town.

                          PUBLIC SCHOOLS.

   In the days of Governor Wolf, himself a native of this county, the 
public school system was adopted by the people of Bethlehem, and the 
children of rich and poor were educated together and alike, so far as the 
elementary branches were considered. From the earliest days the Unitas 
Fratrum, or Moravians, had conducted good schools, and on the passage of 
the Common School Law of 1835, these were made in part common schools, and 
the district that year accepted the provisions of the Act. The first State 
appropriation  of which there is any record is found in the Treasurer's 
books for 1836, as follows: "quota of unexpended State appropriation of 
1835, ten dollars and thirty-five cents." The same year (1836) the "State 
appropriation, including banking money," was one hundred and twenty-five 
dollars and forty-eight cents, and the amount of "State appropriation for 
1836 of County Treasurer," was an additional forty-five dollars and 
fifty-nine cents.
  The tax collected in 1836, for school purposes, amounted to six hundred 
and fourteen dollars and eighty-two cents, for the collecting of which, a 
Commission of eight dollars was allowed one John C. Warner. The total 
receipts for the year were, eight hundred and three dollars and eighty-four 
and one half cents, and the end of the fiscal year, April 10th, showed an 
unexpended balance of eight-nine dollars and ninety-two and one-half cents, 
to which facts, Jacob Wolle, Joseph Jones, and Joseph Santee, the first 
auditors, certified. 

  The first teachers were: Matthew Crist (then spelled Christ, who still 
lives in the town at a ripe old age); and Jacob G. Kemmer, long since 
gathered to the fathers. Their salaries at first were twenty-five dollars 
per month, and for many years did not exceed thirty-three dollars and 
thirty-three cents.  These were private schools, it must be remembered, and 
these salaries not alone covered tuition, but also room rent, fuel, etc. 

  The State appropriation for 1837, amounted to four hundred and fifty-two 
dollars and forty-five cents, which was from some unexplained cause reduced 
to two hundred dollars, in 1838, and went back to two hundred and nineteen 
dollars, in 1839, at which figure it remained for several years, when it 
took a sudden increase, on which line it continued until, tile present 
year, the appropriation amounted to $1,117,80. In consequence of the 
non-attendance of the children of the Moravian families-that denomination 
having an extensive Parochial School-the appropriation from the State is 
not as large, as the town would seem to be entitled to.

The first school building was erected on Wall street, in 1852, at an 
expense of about $2,300; Mr. John H. Yost having been the builder. It was 
subsequently enlarged and improved, but in 1870, it was again found too 
small to accommodate the children of the town, though in the mean time, a 
building had also been erected in the Third Ward, on Garrison street, and 
that year a handsome three-story building was erected at the corner of 
North and Centre streets, at a cost of about $75,000. The Garrison Street 
School was then discontinued, and the pupils were easily accommodated in 
the Franklin (as the new building is called), and the Wall Street, schools. 
The schools are graded, and the instruction is very thorough. The graduates 
of the High School are readily admitted into the Freshman Class of Lehigh 
University. The present board has done great service to the public in 
raising the standard of scholarship of the schools and in economy in the 
administration of school affairs. Special honor belongs to Mr. John & 
Zimmele, the President; and George L. Baum, Esq., the Secretary of the 
Board. Six hundred children at present attend the schools, who are 
instructed by thirteen teachers in twelve rooms. Cost of the schools is 
about $14,000.

                      THE HOME SCHOOL FOR BOYS.

  Is an old-established and ably conducted institution of great popularity 
at home and abroad. 


  It was for many years conducted by Prof. Charles H. Schwartz, now of the 
firm of Schwartz & Weaver, booksellers, but some years since passed into 
the hands of Rev. Prof. Ambrose Rondthaler, a clergyman of the Moravian 
faith, and an educator of many years experience. The school is situated on 
High street, near Broad, directly opposite the Salem Lutheran Church.
A magnificent iron bridge gives Broad street an outlet east over the 
Monocacy. This bridge, was the means of building tip West Bethlehem, or, as 
it is now called, Bethlehem Heights. This is a town of probably 1,200 
population, on the West side of the Monocacy Creek, and is located in 
Lehigh county.

                     THE FIRE DEPARTMENT.

  Bethlehem is well supplied with fire apparatus, and some gentlemen have 
interesting histories of the old "Perseverance" engine and other matters 
pertaining to the old fire apparatus.

  This old engine, then in charge of Perseverance Fire Company, No. 1, was 
replaced by a more modern hand-engine, and that was in turn superseded by a 
beautiful Silsby steamer, which the company still uses. This company, which 
was reorganized in 1848, and again in 1873, also has a beautiful 
hose-carriage, and about eight hundred feet of leather hose. In 1873, 
trouble between the old Company and the, Town Council occurred; the company 
was suspended and the Town Council took possession of the property, 
Thereupon, the company, being an incorporated body, brought a suit in 
Equity, which resulted in a verdict for the company of the amount claimed, 
in the lower Court, The case was carried up, when the judgment was 
reversed, on the ground that the suit had been improperly brought. The 
additional opinion-important to all municipal bodies-was given that 
property, purchased out of donations from the people, was trust property, 
and neither the company nor the borough could ever dispose of it, nor 
divert it from its original purposes.

              DILIGENCE HOSE COMPANY, No. 2.

  Have a fine hose-carriage, and about seven hundred feet of hose.


  Has an elegant Silsby steamer. This company had the first hose-carriage 
used in town, and in 1838 purchased the first leather hose used.

  The remaining company, is the


  They have a very handsome truck, with several hundred feet of ladders, all 
the property of the company.

  The Reliance house is on Broad street, near Main-two-story brick; the 
Perseverance house is on the same street, near Centre-two-story brick, with 
stables; the Nisky house is on Market street, Dear Centre, opposite, 
Trinity Episcopal Church, and adjoining it, is the Diligence house. The 
borough authorities own all these properties save one, and have a mortgage 
on that. The borough owns all the apparatus save one. Service in the 
department is altogether voluntary, excepting cleaning of engines, repairs, 
&c., for which Town Council pays liberally. The people, too, are liberal in 
their subscriptions to the fire companies picnic-s, excursions, parades, 
&c., &c.

  Only one company, the Perseverance, keeps horses, but the Reliance is 
furnished horses from an adjoining livery stable, on occasions of fires.

                          THE GAS WORKS.

  The Gas Works are elsewhere fully spoken of it may, however, not be out of 
place to say that the street, were lighted with lamps as early as 1792 
(probably a decade before that), and these oil lamps were superseded by gas 
on Thursday evening, July 13th, 1854, on which night the gas lamps were 
first lighted. The expense of lighting the lamps had been borne by private 
subscription, but when gas was substituted, the Town Council assumed the 
charge. The lamps are extinguished at 10 o'clock.


  There are two breweries in the town, both of which manufacture a popular 
of Matthias Uhl, on Union street, is to much the more extensive, and was 
established years ago by John Schilling, who now lives to retirement in 
South Bethlehem. The other is on the incline of the hill on which the town 
stands, on the banks of the Monocacy, and is conducted by William Fritsche, 
Rennig's brewery, on the Lehigh Mountain, near the town, is also an 
extensive concern, and a favorite resort in the summer afternoons and 

                          BUSINESS PLACES.

  The stores of Bethlehem are numerous, beautiful, and imposing; and all of 
them carry very large stocks, The four principal dry-goods stores are those of 

Lerch, Rice & Co. 

Traeger & Austin

Cyrus R. Lerch, 




Cortrigla & Co.

Mr. James K. Rauch has an elegant jewelry store, on Main street.



  The confectionery store of Ambrose H. Rauch & Son has won an enviable 
reputation throughout Eastern Pennsylvania, and is one of the largest 
establishments of its kind in the State.

 The hotels are seven in number; and three of them, the "Sun,"  "Eagle," 
and "American," are first-class houses. The "Sun" was opened in 1760, and 
licensed in 1761.

  The private residences are mainly of brick; and, without exception, 
slate-roofed. Many of them are beautiful in design, and luxurious and 
elegant in interior arrangement. It has been estimated that in Bethlehem 
there is either a piano or an organ to every other house; and in the summer 
season, when windows are thrown open, the evening promenaders on the 
beautiful, shaded streets of the town, are greeted by sweet sounds of 
harmony at every step.  This is an evidence of the general diffusion of a 
high order of intelligence among the masses of the residents, and it is 
this that makes the beautiful town doubly attractive as a place Of business 
or residence.

  For many years, the town has been the resort, for the summer season, of 
hundreds of the best families of Philadelphia, Boston, and New York; and 
the number is augmented at every season. These spend the season in rest, in 
the cool hotels, promenades upon the shady streets, and rambles in the 
beautiful Nisky Hill Park. There are also pleasant journeys to the mine, 
both iron and zinc; visits to the immense works for the reduction of these 
ores: and there are any number of historic points of interest that may be 
visited In the evening the bosom of the Lehigh is alive with rowers, in 
their light and speedy canoes; and pleasant gatherings, are had upon the 
Evergreen and beautiful Calypso Island.

   The old Moravian Cemetery, is a spot of never failing and never ending 
interest. Yearly, too, hundreds of the upwards of 6,000 alumni of the 
Moravian Female Seminary return to look upon their alma mater, and to 
express their astonishment at her growth, and the growth of her surroundings.

  The present population of Bethlehem is about 6,500; but it is the centre 
of a compact population of at least 15,000.

                  BOROUGH OFFICERS

Burgess, C. N. Beckel

Treasurer, William V. Knauss

Secretary, M. K. Musselman

High Constable, Joel Shitz

Street Supervisor, Peter Dech

John K. Dech

Aaron Yost

Tilghman H, Blakely

Simon S. Bitting

A. A. Luckenbach

William Seibert

Samuel Riegel

Barnet Fenner

Robert Rau.

                       WATER DEPARTMENT.

Burgess acting as President; Treasurer, William V. Knauss; Town Clerk
as Secretary. Consisting of twelve members, with Commissioners: 
M. K. Snyder, Joseph Hummel, John F. Walp
John Walp, Superintendent; Charles Rickert, Engineer.

                       BOROUGH FINANCES.

Six per cent Coupon Bond issued amounting  to           $32,600 00
Floating debt                                             3,000 00
                                                        $35,600 00
      Valuation,             $3,3877,840 00

Assessment-three-tenth of one per cent.,                $10,163 52
Inventory of Borough Property made February 19, 1877:
Real Estate                                            $  7,500 00
Personal Property                                           574 61     
                   (Fire Department)    
Real Estate,                                              2,850 00
Personal Property,                                        9,424 00
                                                        $20,348 61

                  WATER DEPARTMENT
Bonds, Issued                                           $38,200  00
Floating Debt                                             4,000  00
                                                        $42,200  00
                   (Department Property.)
Real Estate,                                            $18,000  00
Personal,                                                 6,623  55
                                                         24,623  55
        Add Borough                                      20,338  61
          Total                                         $44,972  16

                          BETHLEHEM GAS COMPANY.

  Chartered, February 7th, 1853, with authorized capital of $20,000; four 
hundred shares; par value, fifty dollars, The company commenced to furnish 
gas, January 26th, 1854. The works are located on Canal street and Gas 
alley, near the New street bridge.

  Present amount of stock, $65,850. For a time after commencement of 
business, the company paid six per cent dividends, but latterly they have 
increased to eight per cent.


  Was incorporated by Act of Assembly, May 3d, 1864. Commissioners, Aaron 
W. Radley, John T. Levers, Richard W. Leibert, and Herman Duster. This 
company's bridge over the Lehigh, connecting the boroughs of Bethlehem and 
South Bethlehem, at New street, was built in 1866 and 1867, at a cost of 
$60,000. It was opened for travel September 2d, in the latter year. The 
structure is thirty-six feet above low water-mark, rests upon eight piers, 
spans the tracks of the Lehigh and Susquehanna and the Lehigh Valley 
railroads, the Lehigh Canal, the Lehigh River, Monocacy Creek and Sand 
Island. It is 1,046 feet in length upon the floor. Its two ends rest in 
Northampton county, while the central piers stand in the county of Lehigh; 
the entire width of which, at that point, is Spanned by the bridge.
The first Board of Directors were

President, Charles N. Beckel

Robert H. Sayre

Elisha P. Wilbur

John J. Levers

Herman A. Doster

Robert A. Abbott

Secretary and Treasurer, Herman A. Doster

                      THE BROAD STREET BRIDGE.

  The company organized for the construction of this bridge, was 
incorporated May 1st, 1869.

   The structure, which is of iron, commences at the west side of Main 
street, at the termination of Broad, and thence crosses Monocacy Creek to 
West Bethlehem. Its height above the creek is sixty-seven feet, and it also 
carries the travel high above the tracks of the Lehigh and Lackawanna 
Railroad, on the West Bethlehem side. The length of the bridge is four 
hundred and sixty feet, in three spans of one hundred feet, and two of 
eighty feet each. Width, thirty-two feet, clear, viz: A roadway of twenty 
feet in centre, with a foot-walk of six feet in width on each side.
The work was commenced June 10th, 1869, and the bridge was opened for 
travel May 17th, 1871. The present capital stock of the company is $50,000, 
in shares of fifty dollars each,


                     THE SAW AND PLANING-MILL.

  Of H. D. Yeager, on Sand Island, occupied, the site of the first Moravian
Mill-built in 1743-a portion of the old mill being still standing with Mr. 
Yeager's buildings.


  This is also the site of the Woolen mills which were established by Lewis 
Doster about 1835. Mr. Duster commenced the weaving of woolen goods, with 
only one power-loom, but gradually added to his machinery until, in 1850, 
the business was large enough to demand more extensive facilities than the 
old mill could furnish, and he therefore built anew upon another site.


  The first building for a foundry, on a small scale, was erected in the 
year 1824, by Joseph Miksch, at that time in the locksmith business on the 
west side of Main street, Bethlehem. Before the completion of the works, Mr. 
Miksch died, and the unfinished foundry was purchased of his administrator
by Charles F. Beckel, about the first of January, 1825. He proceeded to
Complete the Works and open the business. His blast for melting the iron
was produced by bellows, worked by horse-power. He carried on the business 
it that place until 1829, when he removed the machinery to the present
between the (then) just finished Lehigh Canal and the river, where be
had erected suitable buildings. The principal object for removing to that
place was the obtaining of water-power from the canal.

  There has been no change of ownership since that time. Mr. Beckel has, 
however, been assisted in the management of the business by his son, 
Charles N. Beckel, who is a scientific and practical builder of iron 
bridges, of which Mr. Beckel has built more than thirty for locations in 
Northampton and the neighboring counties.

  The following notice of the foundry appeared in the Philadelphia 
Commercial and Manufacturers Gazette, of thirty-first of December, 1874:


  The Pioneer Machine-shop and Foundry of the Lehigh Valley is that owned and 
operated by the much respected and veteran machinist, Mr. Charles F. Beckel. 
Mr. Beckel was the first iron-founder in this section of the country, and 
in 1825, when this beautiful valley was but sparsely settled, he 
established a small shop on Main street. The demand for castings at that 
time was rather limited and consisted of light articles, such as plough and 
stove-casting &c. But the population of this rich valley soon increased 
and with it trade began to look up, and Mr. Beckel was soon compelled to 
seek more commodious quarters, so be constructed suitable works in what is 
known as old South Bethlehem, in Lehigh county, on the banks of the canal. 
These works are operated by water-power. The main building is 30 x50 feet 
and two stories in height. 

   The first floor is occupied as a general machine shop, and is fitted up 
with all modern appliances and late improvements in labor saying machinery. 
The second story is occupied as a pattern shop, and is filled to 
overflowing with a valuable collection of patterns of various kinds. 
Adjoining the main shop is a foundry 30 x 60 feet, where are produced all 
kinds of green and city sand castings. The productions of Mr. Beckel's 
establishment consist in part of bridge, house and mill castings and irons, 
ore and quartz crushers, horse and steam-hoists, pumps and machine work 

                     THE PRESS OF BETHLEHEM.

The first newspaper printed in Bethlehem was called Die Bien (The Bee), 
published only in German, by Dr. Abraham Haebener. Printed by Julian Held, 
about 1847.

                   "THE LEHIGH VALLEY TIMES."

  A Republican paper, was started about the year 1853, by E. H. Rauch. 
About 1860, the name was changed to the Bethlehem Advocote. It ceased to 
exist about 1862.

                     "THE MORAVIAN."

  A weekly journal of the American Moravian Church, was established 
January 1st, 1856 Rev. E. de Schweinitz, L. F. Kampman, and F. F. Hagen 
were the first editors. It was first published in Philadelphia, in quarto 
form. In June, 1858, Rev E. de Schweinitz became sole editor
January 1st, 1859, the paper was removed to Bethlehem, and Rev. E. Tinseman 
became its editor. 

  In July 1861, Rev. E. de Schweinitz again became its editor, with special 
contributors. January 1st, 1862, the form was changed to 21 x 28 inches. In 
March, Rev. H. A. Brickenstein became assistant editor.

  The paper was again slightly enlarged, January 1st, 1864. 
January 1st, 1867, it was enlarged to its present size, 26 x 39 inch.
July, 1867, Rev. H. A. Brickenstein became its editor, July 1873, 
Rev. Jesse Blickensderfer became editor, with a corps of editorial 
contributors, August 1st, 1876, Rev. E. T. Kluge, the present editor, took 
charge. Circulation, 1,350.

                       "DYER RUDER BOTSCHAETER."

  A German journal of the church, established 1866, as a biweekly. It was 
changed to a weekly, October, 1871, Size, 15 x 23 inches. Under same 
editorial management as the Moravian. Circulation, 600.

                      THE "LITTLE MISSIONARY."

  A monthly, illustrated paper, for the Sunday-school. Size, 15 x 21 inches 
Established January, 1871, Under same editorial management as the Moravian, 
Circulation, 5,300.

                      "BETHLEHEM DAILY TIMES."

  The establishing of a daily newspaper, in Bethlehem, was a very risky
business-by some, thought foolhardy. The community was considered, 
particularly among newspaper men, one peculiarly repellent of enterprises 
of a journalistic character, Every secular newspaper which had ever been 
started had died, from natural and other causes. 

  D.J. Godlike, who came to Bethlehem from Easton, where he had been 
carrying on a small job printing office, in co-partnership with Wm. 
Eichman, entered, with his partner, into an, agreement with 
General W. E. Doster and others, to publish a political paper here of the 
Republican persuasion. For reasons which it is not necessary to give in 
detail, the paper was called the Weekly Chronicle, and was kept
neutral during Mr. Eichman's connection with it. General Doster took Mr.
Eichman's interest, and, practicing law in Easton, left the paper in Mr. 
Godshalk's charge. The General, tiring of newspaper annoyances and 
responsibilities disposed of his interest to Mr. Godshalk, who, very 
shortly, stopped the publication of the weekly, and on Monday, the fourth 
day of February 1867, the first issue of a daily paper, in Bethlehem, was 
made by him.

  The beginning of the daily was very humble and unpretentious. It was 
first published from the old cabinet-making shop of the late Eckert, where 
the Central Express office is now located.  Both sides were printed at 
once, by hand, on a Washington, hand-press. The first paper, at his earnest 
request, was "pulled" by - Edwards, who was then a train-hand on the North 
Pennsylvania Railroad, and is now baggage-master at the Berks street depot, 
Philadelphia. The size of the first issue-Daily Times-was 13 x 20 inches. 
The people of Bethlehem took kindly to their " little daily," and gave it 
great encouragement and support, in the way of advertising and of printing. 
The editor and proprietor gathered at the locals that were not brought to 
the office by his friends, set type, read proof, set, and worked off jobs, 
wrote locals and editorials, having as assistants one devil and one 
journeyman printer.

  On June 11th, 1867, four months after starting, the paper was enlarged to 
17 x 24 inches, and the business of the office, in advertising and job 
printing, had comfortably prospered. In 1868, the paper was further 
enlarged to 18 x 28 inches, and the office was removed to No. 25 Broad 
street, its present location. At this time the addition had become so 
large, and the forms were so much enlarged that it became necessary to get 
a power-press, and a Cottrell & Babcock country press was put in, and the 
same was turned by hand, for a time; but business still increased, and a 
steam-engine was added for motive power. The employees of the establishment 
had greatly increased in numbers, and the office came into prominence for 
doing a great quantity of first-class job printing.
  On the eighteenth of April, 1869, the Daily Times was enlarged to 20 x 44 
inches, and the Weekly Times was established in the same year. At this time 
Wm. Hackett, Jr., Esq., a young lawyer of Easton, became associate editor 
of the papers, and J. Howard Burke, Esq., his former law partner, was a 
frequent contributor. The Weekly Times subsequently added the words "and 
Educator" to its title, Mr. Wm. N. Walker, county Superintendent of Public 
Schools, being the educational editor, and writing also for the Daily 


  January 3d, 1870, the Daily Times was reduced in size to 23 x 33 inches. 
In this year Mr. C. O. Ziegenfuss, the present (1877) associate or local 
editor, connected himself with the paper in a reportorial capacity, and has 
been steadily employed on the paper ever since, except for about nine 
months in 1874. He bought the Morning Progress, of South Bethlehem, in that 
year, and run it for that time, and in this year the Times and the Progress 
were consolidated. The consultation lasted from the sixth to the twentieth 
of April, 1874 when the Times came back to its old quarters, and the 
Progress was discontinued, and Mr. Z. resumed his labors on the Times.

  Experience is a great teacher, and the proprietors, long before this, 
became D. J. Godshalk & Co., through the silent partnership of 
Mr. Geo. H. Myers, whose interest was, for a time, represented and worked 
by Mr. Frank Hammann, found it best to again reduce the size of the paper, 
and on breaking up the consolidation with the Progress, the Times took its 
present size.

  In May of this year, 1874, Mr. Joseph A. Weaver, who had for years been a 
successful bookseller in Bethlehem,


became a full partner in the establishment, by buying Mr. Myer's interest, 
and a part of Mr. Godshalk's. Almost immediately, new type, new presses, 
paper critters, arid other machinery were put in, and the possibilities of 
the office-for more and finer work-were enlarged; and the business 
followed. The firm name remained unchanged- D. J. Godshalk & Co. Since then, 
the office has enjoyed an uninterrupted and lucrative patronage, but the 
improvements in the paper, four time to time, have left a small margin of 
profit, that department of the business being regarded rather as a public 
benefaction, than an enterprise for private profit. And herein lies the 
success of The Bethlehem Daily Times.

                           SECRET SOCIETIES.

  Secret Societies flourish well in Bethlehem, and have done a noble work.


Bethlehem Lodge, No. 283, A. Y. M.-A. L. 5877. Meets Wednesday, on or before 
Full Moon, constituted, 1854.


Bro. Samuel Krause, W. M.

Bro. Corlandt Whitehead, S. W.

Bro. Uriah J. Wenner, J. W.

Bro. William V. Knauss

Treas.; Bro. Mathew Schmidt

Past Masters.

Sam'l Wetherill

Jesse H. Morgan

Ernst F. Bleck

Rich'd W. Leibert

Louis F. Beckel

Marcus C. Fetter

Cornelius M. Knauss

Bernhard E. Lehman

Abraham Stout, M.D.

Morris A. Borhek

B. Stanley Goodwin

Allen J. Lawall

Augustine N. Leinbach, M.D.

George H. Myers

David D. Godshalk

Charles C. Tombler

Zinzendorf H. R. A. Chapter, No. 216-A. I. 2407.  Meets second Monday of 
each month.


Comp. M. Erskine Abbott, M. E. H. P.

Comp. Matthew J. Schmid, King

Comp. David J. Godshalk, Scribe

Comp. Bernhard E. Lehman, Treas.

Comp. William V. Knauss, Sec'y

Past High Priests-

Jesse H. Morgan

Bernhard E. Lehman

H. Stanley Goodwin

Aug. N. Leinbach, M.D.

Charles C. Tomler

Morris A. Borhek

George H. Myers

Allen J. Lawall

James T. Borhek, Jr.

Bethlehem Council, No. 36, K. S. E and S.M. -Anno Dep. 2877. Meets first 
Thursday of each month. Constituted, 1868.


Ill. Comp. Allen J. Lawall, T. L. G. M.

Ill. Comp. Matthew J. Schmid, D. I. M. G.

Ill. Comp. David J. Godshalk, P. C. of W.

Ill. Comp. Cornelius M. Knauss, M. of Ex.

Ill. Comp. Wm. I. Knauss, Recorder

Past T. I. G. M.-

Bernhard E. Lehman

Marcus C. Fetter

Richard W. Leibert

George H. Myers

Jesse H. Morgan

Charles C. Tombler

Augustine N. Leinbach, M.D.

William V. Knauss

                       GRAND ARMY OF THE REPUBLIC.

J. K. Taylor Post, No. 182,-Composed of ex-soldiers, sailors, and marines, 
of the War of the Rebellion; instituted, May 25th, 1869, by
Colonel W. W. Hammersley, of Post 13, Allentown. The following honorably 
discharged officers and soldiers were mustered:

Majors- A. H. Selfridge and C. E. Humphrey

Captains-  A. Abbott and O. A. Luckenbach


Edw. Hammann

J. R. Roney

D. J. Godshalk

F. A. Clauder

O. B. Desh

Charles Auer

Elex. Ehrig

Objects.-To preserve and strengthen those kind and fraternal feelings which 
bind together the soldiers, sailors, and marinas, who united to suppress 
the late Rebellion. To assist such former comrades-in-arms, as need help 
and protection; and to extend needful aid to the widows and orphans of 
those who have fallen. Present membership, one hundred and eleven. Meets 
every Friday evening, in Grand Army Hall, Nickum's Building, Main street.

  Present officers.-

Post Commander, P. O. Sneller

Senior Vice Commander, David Shartz

Junior Vice Commander, Frank Leffler

Adjutant, V. C. Kleckner

Quartermaster, Fred J. Rice

Surgeon, Frank J. Engle

Chaplain, H. D. Yeager

Sergeant-Major, W. H. Fahs

Quartermaster-Sergeant, W. Warnock

Officer of Day, C. W. Jennings

Officer of Guard, D. W. Saphire


Keystone, Lodge, No. 78, was instituted November 14th, 1842, by

Joseph Browne, M. W. G. M. 

John C. Yeager, R. W. D. G. M.

Thomas M. McKeever, R. W. G. W.

F. Knox Morton, R W. G. T.

Jacob Risting, R. W. G. Mar.

Nathan W. Kinley, R, W. G. C.

A. S. Batchelder, R. W. G. G.

William Curtis, R. W. G. S.

First officers.-

B. B. Heller, N. G.

G. H. Grundie, V. G.

James T. Borbek, Sec'y

John Sigley, Asst. Sec.

G. Grunewalt, Treas

Present membership, one hundred and seventy-one. Valuation of Lodge 
property, $6,942.90. Meets Thursday evenings.

Monocacy Lodge, No. 341- Present number of members, one hundred and
sixty-eight. Valuation of Lodge property, $2,182.89.  Meets Tuesday 

Wreath of Friendship Lodge, No. 917, South Bethlehem, Instituted October 
29th, 1875. Twenty-three charter members Present number of members, 
thirty-five, Valuation of Lodge property, $332.67.

Star Encampment, No. 139, I. O. of O. F., was instituted by the following

Grand Officers: John B. Springer, M. W. G. P.

Francis M. Reo, M. E. G. H. P

George H. Deweis, R. W. G. S. W.

John Curtis, R. W. G. J. W.

H. Simmon, R. W. G. Treas.

Samuel N. Foster, W. G. Sen'r

Wm. Curtis, Grand Scribe.

January 6th, 1866.-The following were the charter members:

Chief Patriarch, F. J. Hans

High Priest, A. W. Schada

Senior Warden, Wm. A. Ross

Junior Warden, G. Armprister

Scribe, Geo. W. Snyder

Treasurer, J. V. Stolzenbach; and nine other Patriarchs.

  The following are the Past Chief Patriarchs:

F. J. Hans

A. W. Schada

William A. Ross

J. V. Stotzenbach

Levi Christine

T. H. Blakely

William Stubblebine

Owen H. Ott

George H. Getter

Henry Fehr

Geo. Fritchman

Joseph Rothrock

John F. Danner

John F. Stadiger

Charles Hinkel

J. R Reichart

A. E. Wohlbach

Jacob F. Ruthardt

M. H. Heckman

R. D. Heckman

Jno. T. Yost

James R. King

 Now in membership, one hundred and four. Total worth of Encampment, $1,358.05.

Elmira Lodge, No. 49, Degree, of Rebekah, I. O. O. F- Located in Bethlehem.

                         BETHLEHEM CORNET BAND.

  The first brass Band in Bethlehem was organized in 1839 bands of music 
had existed from time to time for a half a century previous. The band of 
1839, led by John Sigley, "on the bugle," lived only four years. A reed 
bond succeeded it, and this was converted into a brass band, in 1845 or 
1846. For Dearly twenty years this band was under the successful leadership 
of Lewis F, Beckel, an artistic performer on the cornet. The band attained 
a position foremost in the State for excellence of music and high moral and 
social standard of its members, and its services were sought from distant 
points.  After it had disbanded, various attempts at reorganization were 
made, but proved futile, until in 1873, when the present Bethlehem Cornet 
Band was organized. The band consists of thirty-six members, under the 
leadership of Professor William H. Bush.



  Was chartered in 1863. Capital paid in, $74,000.

 C. A. Luckenbach, President

Rudolph P. Rauch, Cashier

Capital afterwards increased to $200,000: and, in 1867, further increased 
to $500,000; but in April, 1876, reduced to $300,000, the present amount.
President, C. A. Luckenbach
Cashier, Cyrus Brooder


  Chartered September 14th, 1872. Open for business, September 21st, same 
year. The capital, when started, was $200,000; afterwards increased to 
$300,000. Par value of shares, one hundred dollars. Has paid a dividend of 
eight per cent. every year, except the first year started. Has a surplus of 
$30,000. Deposits are over $200,000. 

Dr. D. B. Linderman, President
Henry G. Borhek, Cashier
Francis Weiss, Vice-President


  Was organized under charter granted by the Legislature of Pennsylvania, 
in October, 1863.
William Wilson, President
James T. Borhek, Cashier
 In May, 1866, upon the death of William Wilson, Charles B. Daniel, the 
present President, was elected to the position.

  Capital stock is $100,000; the deposits, $300,000. Par value to be twenty 
dollars per share, in installments; only one having been called in, five 




  The first Methodist sermon preached in Bethlehem was by 
Rev. Joshua H. Turner, a member of the Philadelphia Conference, on the 
eleventh day of May 1848. The second sermon, the twenty-fifth of the same 
month, by the same minister. Services were held at the residence of James 
Lehr, a member of the Evangelical Association, and said to be the only 
church member in Bethlehem, at that time, outside the Moravian congregation.

  No other service was held at Bethlehem until fall, on account of being 
unable to secure a house; the Evangelical minister holding services at Mr. Lehr's.

  At that time, a Methodist family moved to Bethlehem, from Allentown, and 
permission was obtained to hold services at their residence, but, owing to 
the prejudices of the owner of the house against the denomination, it was 
given up; and no more, preaching was had until the next spring (1849), when 
Rev. David R. Thomas and Rev. Mr. Stockton held services in the Odd Fellows 
Hall, on New street, once a month.

  In the year 1851, Rev. M. A. Day commenced holding regular services in 
the same hall. At that time there was but one Methodist family in 
Bethlehem; James K. Hillman, wife and daughter, all members. Services were 
held every third Wednesday, and the congregation gradually increased.
In the spring of 1852, Rev. W. H. Brisbane was appointed to the Allentown 
circuit, of which Bethlehem was then a part. He organized a class, and 
appointed Samuel M. Ritter leader.

  The members of the class were: 

Samuel M. Ritter and wife
James K. Hillman and wife
Thomas M. Sayler and wife
Amanda Hillman and Sarah A. Ritter. -nine in all. 

  Services were held every second Sabbath, until the spring of 1853, when 
Rev. Samuel Irwin succeeded Mr. Brisbane. Mr. Irwin labored earnestly, and 
succeeded in awakening great interest. In January of that year, twenty 
conversions were made; seventeen of whom joined the then small class. In 
the second year of Mr. Irwin's labors (1854), the first Methodist church 
was built, on Centre street, between Market and Church. The corner-stone 
was laid in July, Rev. W. H. Ryan officiating; and the dedication services 
preached, January 8th, 1855, by Rev, M. Anderson, D.D., of Easton, Pa., 
assisted by Rev. George W. Brindle, of Philadelphia. Immediately following, 
some twenty-five or thirty were converted, and the greater part joined the 
Methodist church, Rev. Henry A. Hobbs followed Mr. Irwin, and some eight 
more conversions were made during his labors. During the year 1869, the 
old church was torn down, and a new one erected on a part of the old lot. 
The corner-stone was laid September 11th and 12th, by Rev. Joseph S. Cook, 
assisted by the Rev. George Cummins and Rev. W. J. Paxson. The lecture-room 
was dedicated January 31st, 1870, by Rev. James Mill, of Philadelphia, 
assisted by Rev. George Cummins

  The present pastor, Rev. J. Y. Swindells, commenced his labors
April, 1874. In 1875, principally through the liberality of one of the 
members, Mrs. Eliza A. Yoder, the main audience-room of the church was 
completed; and dedicated, July, 1875, by Rev. R. L. Dashiell, D.D., 
assisted by 

Rev. William B. Wood

Rev. M. A. Day

Rev. G. Cummins

Rev. S. J. Kemble

Rev. George S. Broadbent

  The present valuation is $25,000; the membership, one hundred and forty; 
and Sabbath-school of one hundred and fifty scholars, which was organized, 
in 1854, with thirteen scholars. J. L. C. Miller was the first (and is the 
present) superintendent; which position he has held, except one year, ever 
since it organization.

                        SALEM LUTHERAN CHURCH.

  In the fifth decade of the present century, Lutherans began to settle at 
Bethlehem. As their number increased, they felt the necessity of making 
provision for the worship of God according to their faith. In the year 
1849, a number of preliminary meetings were held, which resulted in the 
organization of the Evangelical Lutheran Congregation of Bethlehem. The 
first regular service was held in the upper hall of a building known as 
"The Armory," situated on the north side of Broad street, between New and 
Centre streets. The Rev. Joshua Jaeger, of Allentown, preached on this 
occasion. This was in the mouth of October, 1849.

  An agreement was made with the Reformed, to erect a church which should 
be used by the Lutherans on one Sunday, and by the Reformed on the next-a 
Union church. Having secured, From the Moravians, a suitable lot on the 
west side of High street, near Broad street, the edifice known as "Salem 
Church" was begun in the year 1850, the corner-stone being laid on the 
first of September. A collection taken at the time amounted to 
fifty-three dollars and ten cents. In the spring of the following year the 
church was completed so far that, on the fifth of April 1851, it could be 
dedicated to the service of the Triune God. The treasurer reported that at 
the consecration a collection amounting to seventy-three dollars and 
twenty-seven cents was taken up. At that time, the church had no steeple, 
clock, bell, nor pews. Portable wooden benches were used as seats. The 
windows were square at the top, In lighting up the church in the evening, 
common tallow candles were used.

  About the same time that the church was built, the congregation secured a 
plot of ground on Church street, which was laid out as a cemetery.

Among the names prominent in the records of that time, are those of

John H. Yost

John Opp

Joseph B. Jones

James Walp

John Walp

A.W. Radley, and others.

 For a time the congregation was supplied by the Rev. J. Richards. The 
first regular pastor was the Rev. C. K. Welden, who entered upon his duties 
in November 1851.

On the twenty-seventh of September, 1852, it was resolved to build a 
steeple on the church.  This accomplished, a clock was placed in the steeple.

  The Sunday-school was organized May 1st, 1853, with Mr. A. R. Horne (now 
the Rev. Prof. A. R. Horne, Principal of the State Normal School at 
Kutztown, Pa.,) as superintendent.  Its sessions were held in the old 
public school house, on Wall street; whence, after the lesson, the children 
were taken to procession to the church, for the purpose of attending divine 
service. During the summer of 1856, the Sunday-school room attached to the 
rear end of the church was erected; and, on November 2d, the formal 
dedication took place, the Rev. Prof. Heidenreich delivering the address.

  At this time, also, the pews were placed in the church; the windows 
altered from square to the gothic arch, and the whole interior of the 
edifice frescoed.

  In the spring of 1865, the Rev. C. F. Welden, having served the 
congregation for fourteen years, resigned his office as pastor, and was at 
once succeeded by the Rev. J. B. Rath.

  On the twenty-second of June, 1868, the two congregations which had 
hitherto used the church, resolved to effect a separation, and, on the 
eleventh of July of the same year, the Lutherans, being the highest bidders 
for the church property, bought the Reformed interest for $4,850.  After 
the Reformed relinquished the church, Lutheran services were held every 
Sunday, in both the German and English languages. Some of the members, 
desiring more frequent English preaching, organized an entirely English 
congregation in the year 1872. On the thirty-first of December, 1872,

Rev. J. B. Rath's pastorate ceased, he having accepted a call to become 
pastor of Grace Church.

  At an election held December -, 1872, the present pastor, 
Rev. F. W. Weiskotten, was unanimously elected on Sunday, 
February 16th, 1873, he was installed by the President of the Ministerium 
of Pennsylvania, Rev. Dr. Greenwald, and the Rev. F. J. F. Schantz. The 
members remaining after the separation, numbered about four hundred.

  During the summer the church was newly frescoed, painted, carpeted, and 
beautified generally.  A legacy left by Mrs. Maria J. Krause was used in 
purchasing a beautiful altar and lectern, which were placed in the church 
as memorials of the departed.

  The German and English languages continue to be used in the services, and 
have equal rights. In the morning a German Sunday-school, and in the 
afternoon an English Sunday-school, is held. The latter numbers four 
hundred and fifteen members. Mr. Aaron Fatzinger is superintendent of the 
main department, and Mrs. P. L. Gross of the infant department.

  The congregation now number six hundred and seventeen members. The 
following persons fill the respective offices of the congregation:


John Sandt

Philip Scheffler

George F. Stahr

Theodore Grolier


Josiah E. Sweitzer

Charles B. Opp

William Houser

Manasseh Seipel


George F. Herman

John Opp

Charles Harwi [?]


Daniel D. Ritter

Pastor, Rev. F. W. Weiskotten


                       CHRIST REFORMED CHURCH.

  The Reformed people associated themselves, as was usual in those. days, 
with the Lutherans of Bethlehem, and they together built Salem Church, in 
the year 1850, of which each congregation owned one half.

  The founder of the Reformed congregation was Rev. J. C. Becker, D.D., and 
be also was its first pastor. His election took place June 15th, 1851. The 
full formal organization of the Reformed congregation took place May 18th, 
1851, when its first officers were elected. Their names are:


John Berger

John Peter

Joseph Hess

Jacob Jacoby


Aaron George

John Hartzell

Henry Knecht

Charles H. Doll

Samuel Berger

George Reich

A number of the original members of the congregation are  still living.

  Rev. Dr. Becker having accepted the call of the congregation, preached 
his introductory sermon July 20th, 1851. The first communion was held on 
the ninth of November following, on which occasion thirty-five members 
partook of the Holy Supper. In a few years the number had increased to 
fifty-seven. At first, services were held only once in four weeks -an 
arrangement, which was soon succeeded by services every two weeks. One of 
the first objects of the two congregations was to provide a cemetery for 
their dead. The necessary ground was accordingly purchased, and the first 
lots in the Union Cemetery, were sold August 24th, 1851, at five dollars each.

  The first chorister of the Reformed congregation, was Mr. Aaron George, 
who, in leading the praises of the people, accompanied his voice with a violin.

  Dr. Becker resigned the congregation in 1857, He fell asleep in Jesus on 
the eighteenth day of August 1858. He is buried in the Union Cemetery at 
Bethlehem, surrounded by many of those to whom in life be ministered in 
holy things.

  Dr. Becker was succeeded by Rev. A. J. G. Dubs of Allentown, who served 
the congregation about one year. On the twelfth day of January, 1858, 
Rev. D. Y. Heisler was elected pastor. He entered upon the duties of his 
charge, April 1st, 1858. The Lord continued to prosper the Reformed 
congregation, and the Record of 1861, shows the names of two hundred and 
thirty confirmed members, and One hundred and seventy-five baptized members.

   On the fourth of June, 1866, pastor Heisler resigned the congregation; 
and at an election held August 18th, of the same year, Rev. Isaac K. Loos, 
the present pastor, was chosen to succeed him. Rev. Mr. Loos entered upon 
his duties here, December 16th, 1866.

  On the twenty-second day of June, 1868, the Reformed and Lutheran 
congregations, which had been up to that time worshiping together in Salem 
Church, on High Street, resolved to separate.

  An eligible lot was bought of Mr. G. W. Whitaker, having seventy-two feet 
front on Centre street, between Broad and Market, by one hundred and eighty 
feet in depth. Price $7,200. Early in April 1869, ground was broken for the 
new church. The first stone in the foundation was laid by Mr. Moses Stuber, 
stone-mason, on Monday May 3d, 1869. On Sunday, June 6th, following, the 
corner-stone was laid. The whole church was, put under roof, but the 
basement only finished for occupancy. On the twenty-third of January, 1870, 
it was consecrated to the worship of God, the pastor preaching on the 
occasion from Psalm cxxii. 1-6. In the evening the melodeon and the church 
were dedicated with appropriate religious services, Rev. J. B. Rath, 
preaching the sermon, and Rev. D. F. Brendle assisting. Thus far the 
Reformed congregation had worshiped in the Salem Church. From this day 
onward they worshiped in the basement of their own new building, Christ 
Reformed Church. 

  The building committee consisted of Messrs., 
C. B. Daniel
J. J Hoffman
John K. Dech
John Lerch

  On January 14th, 1872, the congregation resolved to finish the main 
audience-room of the church. The work was entered upon with much zeal, and 
the church before the following Christmas. On the twenty-second of December 
1872, the consecration took place, pastor Loos preaching in German in the 
morning, and Rev. Tuns. G. Apple, D.D. in the English language, both 
morning and evening.

  The Sunday morning services of the congregation are at present conducted
in the German language. The evening services are always English, and 
conducted according to the Order of Worship (Liturgy) of the Reformed 
Church in the United States.

  The officers of Christ Reformed Church. at this time, are:

 Pastor, Rev. Isaac K. Loos


J. J. Hoffman

B. Fenner

George V. Snyder

Albert F. Knight


M. L. Cortright

S. S. Algart

O. A. Richards

George D. Myers


John Lerch

J. J. Hoffman

Chas. B. Daniel

Charles Hartzell

Financial Secretary
Chas. F. Hartzell

George V. Snyder

The membership of Christ Reformed Church numbers four hundred and 

                       GERMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH.

  First service held in 1854, at the house of Nicholas Miller, on Union street.

The church was built in 1856, on Union street, between New and Main, and 
attended from Easton.

  From 1860 to 1871 it was attended from Allentown. It was that year erected 
into a pariah with Rev. John Joseph Albert, pastor, until December 1874, 
when he was replaced by Rev. Joseph A. Winter, the present pastor. In 1875 
a school was opened under the direction of the Sisters of St. Francis. A 
pastoral residence was erected in 1875, in the rear of the church. Repairs 
were made on and around the church in 1876 and 1877. Until 1860, both 
Germans and Irish attended this church. They then divided and the Irish 
built a church in South Bethlehem.

                    TRINITY CHURCH (EPISCOPAL).

  On April 25th, 1869, Rev. Robert L. Nivin, being rector of the Church of
the Nativity, South Bethlehem, a Sunday-school was started in the public
school house, corner of School alley and Wall street; Mr. U. S. Goodwin,
Superintendent. It was Rev. John Irving Forbes, however, having succeeded 
Mr. Nivin its rector of the Nativity, who put into a practical form the
cherished wish of former rectors of the Nativity, to have a second parish 
in the old town, distinct from the one in South Bethlehem. He began 
services, on Sunday evenings in the hall of the Young Men's Christian 
Association, Main street. At the end of the year 1870, a church building 
had been decided upon, Rev. Cortlandt Whitehead having succeeded Mr. Forbes 
as rector of the Nativity.

  Mr. Forbes died in June 1871, and it was agreed that the church should
be in part a memorial to him. Tuesday afternoon, August 29th, at five 
o'clock, the corner-stone was laid by the rector. 

  Addresses were made by 
the Rt. Rev. Edmund M. Schweinitz, Bishop of the Moravian Church,
by the Rev. Mr. Nivin
Rev. W. B. Eben

  The church was completed by Christmas Day, 1871. On January 16th, 1872, 
the church was formally opened for divine service, by the Bishop of the 
newly formed Diocese of Central Pennsylvania, with the clergy of the Lehigh 
and Schuylkill Convocation, by preaching and celebrating the Holy 
Communion. Services were then held in the church every Thursday morning and 
evening, by the rector and his assistant.

  Early in spring of 1872, steps were taken towards an organization separate 
from the Church of the Nativity. The following were named in the charter as 
Wardens and Vestrymen:

Francis Weiss and Charles M. Dodson, Wardens

R. H. Sayre

G. R. Linderman

Timothy Ister

Geo. W. Whitaker

Weston Dodson

H. S. Goodwin

C. H. Kidder

W. M. Wendell

Jacob S. Moyer

Hiram Kreider

  December 1st, Rev. Mr. Whitehead resigned, and Rev. Charles Morrison was 
called. He accepted the call and entered upon his duties Sunday, 
July 6th, 1873. He was succeeded by Rev. I. K. Mendenhall, October 15th, 1875.


  This congregation had its, origin in the bosom of Salem Lutheran Church, of 
this place. The small size of the Salem Church building and the want of an 
English Lutheran Congregation in Bethlehem, were the principal causes of  
the establishment of Grace Lutheran Church.

  The advice of the Second District, Conference haying given in the 
following resolution :

  "Resolved, That we, as a Conference, unite in advising Salem Lutheran 
Congregation, at Bethlehem, peaceably to divide itself now into two 
distinct congregations, one German and one English, if it feels itself at  
all able to bear the expense involved in such a course."

  At a congregational meeting of Salem Church, held April 16th, 1872, the 
following resolution was offered by Mr. Joseph Wendell (German member), 
seconded by Mr. M. H. Snyder, a d unanimously adopted by the meeting:

  "Resolve, That the old Mother congregation recommends, to those members 
who wish to go out into an English organization, to build an English 
church, and that they (the members of Salem Church) will give them all the 
help in their power."

  Upon this recommendation the English members at once proceeded to 
energetic work. Individual members of the old church assisted the new 
enterprise to the amount of about six hundred dollars.

  The lots for the site of the new church, Broad street, below Centre, were 
purchased from Mr. Thomas Frankenfield and Mrs. Caroline Opp. Under the 
supervision of the building committee, 

J. B. Zimmele

John Walp

F. E. Huger

George Annihilate 

G. J. Desh

  The ground was broken for the foundation, on July 16th, 1872.
The corner-stone was laid with appropriate services on Sunday, August 5th, 1872.

  On the thirty-first of October, 1872, it was formally organized, under 
the name and title of "Grace Evangelical Lutheran Church of Bethlehem," by 
enrolling eighty-eight persons as members, adopting a constitution, and 
electing the following as its first officers Rev. J. B, Rath, pastor; M. H. 
Snyder, F. Sick urn, and J. B. Zimmele, elders; Wm. H. Sot, Joy. A. Weaver, 
Frank Wind, and Samuel Nickum, deacons; John Walp, George Annihilate, Geo. 
J. Desh, trustees; Charles H. Schwartz, organist.

  On Sunday, January 5th, 1873, the basement-room of the church was 
consecrated, and the pastor and church council installed, Rev. C. F. Welden 
and Rev. G. F. Miller preached on the occasion. The Sunday-school was also 
opened on the same day lit this rocin the congregation worshiped for one 
year, during which time the main audience-room was finished. The 
dimensions of the building are 45 x 80 feet; and the main audience-room 
will seat over five hundred persons. This routu was entered and consecrated 
to divine service on Sunday, January 4th, 1874, Rev. E. Greenwald, 
President of the Synod, preached the consecration sermon.
The cost of the church property was about $23,000, The Rev. J. B. Rath, who 
was born and reared in the vicinity of Bethlehem, has thus far (1877) been 
the only pastor of this congregation. Present membership over two hundred. 
It is the only English Lutheran Church in Northampton county, outside of Easton.


                         FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH.

  This church was organized by a Committee of the Presbytery of Lehigh, on 
Sabbath, November 14th, 1875, in the parlor of the Young Men's Christian 
Association, on Main street. The following persons, twenty-one in number, 
formed the original membership, namely:

Gen. Robert S. Brown

A. Brown, M. D.

Mrs. Amanda E. Brown

Miss Mary E. Brown

Miss Flora S. Brown

Mrs. Rebecca Engle

Mrs. Sarah L. White

Mrs. Marietta Cyphers

Enoch Phillips

Horatio D. Yeager

Mrs. Mary C. Yeager

B. Franklin Pierce

Mrs. Julia Pierce

John R. Bennett

Mrs. Mary E. Bennett

Mrs. Thankful Holcombe

Michael Bitler

Mrs. Sarah A. Bitler

Edward T. Bitler

William C. Taylor

Mrs. Abby T. Taylor

  The following persons were the first elders elected by the church:

Robert S. Brown

C. Franklin Pierce

William C. Taylor

Michael Bitler 

The first Board of Trustees was constituted as follows

Horatio D. Yeager
M. Bitter
John R. Bennett

  From November 14th, 1875, until February 13th, 1876, the church held all 
its services in the parlors of the parsonage, on the corner of Broad and 
High streets. Different ministers and candidates supplied the pulpit. 
Rev. Cornelius Earle, Pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of 
Catasauqua, who had always encouraged and greatly helped the movement from 
the beginning, came down to Bethlehem frequently and preached during the 
week. On Monday evening, February 14th, 1876, preaching service was held in 
the church on Union street, above Main. This edifice had been formerly 
occupied by the United Brethren, whose organization had been disbanded. A 
lease was affected by the Presbyterians, who still occupy it at the date of 
this writing. At a meeting of the church and congregation, held on the 
evening of March 8th, 1876, the Rev. Alexander D. Moore, of Northumberland, 
Pa., was called to be the pastor of the church. The call was accepted and 
Mr. Moore began his labors on Sabbath, April 2d, 1876, On the thirtieth day 
of April, following, he was regularly installed as pastor of the church by 
the Presbytery of Lehigh.  At the present time the membership is 
increasing, the congregations are large, the Sabbath-school is in a 
flourishing condition, and the prospects for future success are most 


  As early as January 5th, 1849, the Moravians had opened at Bethlehem, a 
school for girls, which, however, was not open to any except the children 
of their own community.  The events of the Revolutionary War, however, and 
particularly of the period from the commencement of 1777 till 1783, 
causing, as they did, the chief personages of America, among whom were 
Hancock and Adams, and WASHINGTON himself to become visitors at Bethlehem, 
brought the, retiring Moravians prominently into notice, and caused the 
excellence or their educational system to be understood and appreciated in 
the highest quarters; and this knowledge was auspicious for a people who 
had long been both misunderstood and misrepresented. And thus it came to 
pass that the Moravians, who were recognized its conscientious educators of 
youth in their own commonwealth, were soon sought, to do service in that 
capacity to a new and wider sphere.

  Having been repeatedly urged to engage, in the cause of education outside 
of their own church, the General Synod of 1782, sanctioned the assumption 
of such a responsibility on the part of the American Executive Board, 
entrusting the development of the project to Bishop John de Watteville, who 
was in the United States in the interval between 1784 and 1787.

  Accordingly, on the second of October, 1785, the then existing school for 
girls, at Bethlehem, having been reorganized and remodeled, was opened in 
the interest of the American public as a Boarding School for Girls, under 
the auspices of the Moravian Church. Such was the origin of this school 
which has now been in successful operation for ninety-one years, and has, 
in that time, enrolled upon its register the names of more than SIX 
THOUSAND pupils. Seventeen principals have thus for administered its 
affairs, and they came in the following order.

  Rev. John Andrew Huebrier-1785-90. Mr. Huebner, a graduate of the 
Moravian Theological Seminary, at Barby, Saxony, came to this country in 
the spring of 1780, and was settled in the ministry at Bethlehem. On the 
twelfth of October 1785, he assumed the duties of Principal of the newly 
organized school in connection with those of his pastorate. Its beginnings 
were small. Five of the inmates of the former institution, and fifteen day 
scholars, in charge of three fortresses, constituted the entire household, 
and this was accommodated in a suite of apartments in one of those old-time 
buildings that stand near the Moravian Church, and date back to the year 1742.

  Miss Elizabeth Bedell, a daughter of Mr. Israel Bedell, of Staten Island, 
was the first pupil, not of Moravian parentage. She was admitted in
March 1786. In May, 1787, Miss Aurelia Blakely, of Baltimore, followed, and 
at the close of that year the number of boarders reached seventeen:
The rates at which pupils were charged in the year 1788, were the 
                                                               £   s.    d.
"For Board, Washing, and Tuition, the latter including the 
ordinary branches of an English education and instruction 
in the German language, per Quarter,                           5   -      -
For Tambour-work and Drawing, per Quarter,                     -   17     6
For lessens on the Piano Forte or Guitar, per Quarter,         -   17     6
For the use of Light, Fuel, and School-books, per Quarter,     -   15     -

  The age, of admission at this time was from eight to fifteen years.
Seventy pupils were admitted into the school during Mr., Huebner's 
administration, which terminated in January 1790.

  Rev. Jacob Van Vleck-1790-1800. Mr. Van Vleck was a native of New York, 
and his parents members of the church which the Moravians organized in that 
city, in 1748. After having punned a collegiate course of instruction in 
the school which was opened at Nazareth Hall, subsequent to the dissolution 
of the Economy, he, in 1771, went abroad to prepare for the ministry, at 
the Theological Seminary, at Barby. Returning to his native Country after a 
seven years absence, Mr. Van Vleck was ordained, and settled at Bethlehem 
in the capacity of assistant pastor. On being called to the head of the 
school in January 1790, he issued the following circular:

  Conditions of the Boarding-school in Bethlehem for the Education 
                          of Young Minds.

  Children are admitted between the ages of eight and twelve years, and may 
remain at school, if parents desire, to the age of sixteen, unless their 
deportment should be such as not to admit of their longer continuance. 
Every possible attention will be paid to the health and morals of the 
children. On admittance one guinea entrance-money is to be paid.

  The price of boarding and common schooling is £20, Pennsylvania currency, 
per year, payment to be, made at entrance, quarterly in advance, and so continued.

  Under common schooling are comprised; Reading, Writing, Grammar, History,  
Geography, Arithmetic, plain Sewing and Knitting.

  For instruction in Music, if desired, two guineas per year is charged.

  For instruction in fine Needlework, including Drawing, also two guineas per year.

  Clothing, medicine, books, paper, and other contingent expenses, are a 
separate charge, and are to be settled quarterly. In bedding, they may be 
found for twenty shillings per year.  The dress is to be decent, avoiding 
excess and vanity.

  It is desired that such as are applied for, should have had the measles 
and small-pox.

  Application, informing him of the age and character of the child, to be 
made writing to the

                                                    REV JACOB VAN VLECK.

P. S.-As many parents and guardians have signified their desire that their 
children might also be taught the French language, we have now the pleasure 
to inform them that a lady, well versed in this language, has arrived from 
Europe, with the intention to give lessons in the same. As the maintenance, 
of said lady, m well as the expenses of voyage and journey from Europe, 
will fall upon the school, we trust it will not be deemed unreasonable, 
that an extra charge of live Spanish dollars per annual, should be made! 
instruction in French.


  So rapid was the increase of pupils at this time, that more ample 
accommodations became necessary, and it was, therefore, resolved to erect a 
commodious building for the Institution on a plot of ground immediately in 
rear of the old Economy houses. It was completed in 1790, and occupied, 
April 12th, 1791  The number of scholars at that time was eighty-eight, and 
the number of tutoresses, ten.1

  On the thirteenth of June 1797, Mr. Van Vleck announced that, having 
examined the list of candidates for admission, and finding the number 
greater than be bad prospect of being able to accommodate, he should drop 
the entering of names for a time, and he requested that no more 
applications be made before the expiration of eighteen months from that date.

  Three hundred and sixty-five pupils were admitted into the Institution 
during this prosperous administration. In June 1796, Mrs. Thomas Lee, of 
Park Cats, near Dumfiries, Virginia, niece to President Washington, on his 
recommendation, applied for the admission of her daughter. On the register 
of this period are found recorded the well-known names of
Rosevelt, and others.

  In the month of December, A. D. 1800, Mr. Van Vleck retired from the head 
of the school, and was succeeded by Rev. Andrew Berhade -1800-13, Mr. Benade 
was educated for the ministry at, Barby, came to America in 1795, and first 
served as tutor at Nazareth Hall.

  On the retirement of Mr. Van Vleck, he was called to the head of the
Seminary, and remained in that position for more, than twelve years, during 
which time four hundred and thirty-two pupils entered the Institution. He 
retired from the charge of the school in January, 1813. Forty-six years 
later (October 1859), he died, in Bethlehem, at Life, age of ninety-one years.

  Following Mr., Benade, as Principal, came Rev. Lewis Ruebuer -1813-who 
filled, the station less than a year, and died December 6th, 1813.

  Rev. John G. Cunow-1813-45. During his administration the Institution was 
removed into a four-story building, on its present site. This was the 
house of the Single Brethren, which had twice been occupied as a hospital 
in the Revolution, It was purchased by the trustees of the school, and 
after being repaired and renovated, was occupied by the pupils, 
November 10th, 1815.

  Many were the conveniences, afforded to the inmtates by the ample 
accommodations of their new home; among the much-needed comforts was an 
infirmary, which was given in charge of a resident matron.

  Upwards of six acres of land, situate, in the rear of the building, being 
included in the purchased property, a portion of the plot was laid out as a 
park, and planted with trees, and shrubs. This was the beginning of the
pleasure grounds."

  A few weeks after the important event in the history of the Institution 
just recorded, Mr. Cunow closed his career as Principal. In 1821 he 
returned to Europe.

  Right Rev. Charles G. Reichel-1815-16; since 1811, President of the 
Executive Board of the Province North, and senior Bishop at Bethlehem, was 
Principal of the school in the interval between November 1815, and February 1816.

  Rev. Henry Steinhauer-1816-18. Mr. Steinhauer was born at Haverford West, 
South Wales, in February 1782, and has educated for the ministry at the 
Barby Theological Seminary. He was residing in England, when, in the summer 
of 1815, he was called to the head of the Institution.

  On his arrival at Bethlehem, in February, 1816, Mr. Steinhauer at once 
entered upon the duties of his new position. For this he was eminently 
fitted, and in it he labored with much acceptance and with credit to the 
Institution over which he presided.

  Mr. Steinhauer died in the prime of manhood, in July 1818. He was 
succeeded by Rev. Charles. F. Seidel, who was, in turn, succeeded by 
Rev. John F. Frueauff-1819-1821 -who was appointed to the head of the 
Institution in January, 1819. He died at Bethlehem in August 1828.

  Rev. Lewis David de Schweinitz-1821-22. Mr. de Schweinitz, a great-
grandson of Count Zinzendorf, in the maternal line of descent, was born in 
Bethlehem, and was educated for the ministry at the Moravian Theological 
Seminary, at Nisky, Prussia. His first appointment in the service of his 
church was, in the American Province South. Thence he was called to 
Bethlehem, in 1821.

  Forty-one pupils were admitted into the Institution during his incumbency 
which covered the interval between December, 1821, and August 1822. In the 
last-named month he, was appointed Financial Agent of the Unity, Executive 
Board for the Province North, At the same time he was a member of the 
Provincial Executive Board and senior pastor of the Bethlehem congregation. 
lie died fit February, 1834.

  Mr. de Schweinitz was widely known and highly esteemed outside of his own 
church, both in this country and abroad, he was a member of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences, and of the American Philosophical Society, and a 
corresponding member of several leading scientific associations on the 

  Rev. Charles F. Seidel -1822-36-a native of Saxony and a graduate of the 
Nisky Theological Seminary, came to this country 1806, and received his 
first appointment in the Province South. Between 1809 and 1817, he was 
Principal of Nazareth Hall.

  In August, 1822, Mr. Seidel was called to the head of the Institution of 
which we write, administering its affairs with eminent ability for 
fourteen eventful years, in which period he admitted six hundred and 
forty-two pupils.

  He retired from the head of the Seminary in 1836, and was succeeded by
Rev. John G. Kummer -1836-43. Mr. Kummer was born on the Island of St. 
Thomas; was educated at Nazareth Hall, and entered life service of the, 
church in the capacity of a tutor at that, school in 1815. From 1826 to {?} as 
Principal of Linden Hall. In the last-named year he was settled at Nazareth.

  He entered upon the duties of Principal, in March of 1836, and labored in 
its interests for seven years.

  The 21st of May 1836, was appropriately observed as the fiftieth 
anniversary of the day on which the first pupil was admitted into the 

  Three hundred and seventy-five pupils entered the Seminary during this

  On retiring from its head, Mr. Kummer was settled place he died in 
August, of 1846.

  In the interval between October of 1843, and June of 1844, Rev. John G. 
Herman, senior pastor of the Bethlehem congregation, was acting Principal. 
He died in July of 1854, in the State, of Missouri, while an official 
visitation to the Cherokee Mission in the Indian Territory.

  Rev. Henry A. Shultz, 1844-1847-Mr. Shultz was born at Hope, a mission 
station in Dutch Guiana, S. A. and was educated at the Theological Seminary 
at Nazareth. Four hundred and fifteen pupils were admitted into the 
Seminary during his administration.

  Rev. Herman J. Titze, 1847-1849 -Mr. Titze entered on the duties of
Principal, October 1847. Ninety-four pupils were admitted during his term
of office.  

  The Rev. Sylvester Wolle, 1849-1861 -Mr. Wolfe was born in 1816, near 
Nazareth, and was educated at the Theological Seminary at that place. He 
was settled in the ministry at Gnadenhuetten, Ohio. From there he was 
called to the head of the Seminary in July of 1849. Its affairs he 
administered for twelve years with success.

  Under his administration the number of pupils increased from year to year 
and at the close of the annual term in June of 1853, reached one hundred 
and fifty-seven.

  It becoming evident that ampler accommodations than could be furnished
in the "old house" were requisite to meet the demands of a steadily growing
patronage, Mr. Wolle, as early as 1852, projected the erection of a new
building, vacated the residence occupied by himself and his predecessor
since 1834, and discontinued admitting day-scholars.

1. When in the spring of 1857, this building was demolished, there was 
found well preserved in the corner-stone, which had been laid in May, 1790 a 
memorial document, containing among other records the following that bears 
upon this sketch:

       In the Name of our LORD JESUS CHRIST
  who willeth that children should come to him,
and be brought up in the nurture add admonition
             of Him,
     with the approbation of the Reverend the
  Directors of this and all other Brethrens Congregations
    in Pennsylvania and adjacent States
   Reverend the Directors of the Unitas Fratrum,
and with the blessing and prayers of the whole congregation
            of this place;
    (in order to enlarge the Girls Boarding School
  instituted in this place in the year 1765
   and which within 5 years increased so much
 that the present number of pupils amount to 69.)
     In full reliance and confidence that this
undertaking will be graciously owned and prospered 
            by our Lord Jesus Christ,
      the great Friend of our Children,
by His and our dear Father in Heaven
      and by the Holy spirit, 
The Foundation Stone of this Building
           is laid,
  Bethlehem 2d day of May, in the year
of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and ninety.


  In midsummer of 1854, the work of erecting the present east wing of the 
Seminary buildings, was auspiciously begun. This addition was occupied ill 
the mouth of November. It is a handsome four-story brick dwelling, 
admirably arranged as to its interior, for its intended use, heated by 
furnaces and conveniently supplied with gas and water. 

  The accommodations afforded by the new addition however, proved 
inadequate, and in the spring of 1859, ground was broken in view of 
erecting at the west end of the "old house," a wing in all respects similar 
to the one completed in 1854. This wing includes a well-appointed 
infirmary, has a swimming-bath in the basement, and is provided with all 
modern conveniences.

In the early spring of 1857, Mr. Wolle, having been elected a delegate to 
the twenty-seventh General Synod of his church which convened at Herrnhut 
in June of that year, sailed for Europe. He was abroad seven months; his 
brother, the Rev. Francis Wolle, meanwhile administering the affairs of the 

  Having been chosen a member of the Executive Board of the Province North, 
in the spring of 1861, Mr. Wolle severed his connection with the 
Institution, whose interests he had so materially advanced and into which 
he had admitted upwards of one thousand pupils. The highest number at one 
time under his care was two hundred. He died at Bethlehem in August of 1871
Rev. Francis Wolle, 1861, the present well-known Principal of the Moravian 
Seminary for Young Ladies at Bethlehem, was born near Nazareth in 1817, 
educated at Bethlehem, and first served his church in the capacity of a 
tutor at Nazareth Hall, from 1839-1846. In 1856, be was appointed Vice 
Principal of the Institution at whose head he has now stood for sixteen years.

 In that interval of time he has been signally prospered in his labors, 
having admitted nearly three thousand pupils.

  The largest number registered for any one academic year in the annals of 
the school, was for the year ending with June of 1866, and reaches three hundred 
and eighteen.

  In December of 1863, the Rev. Francis Holland (the present Principal, of 
the Hope Academy for Young Ladies) was appointed Vice-Principal, and in 
1866, he was succeeded in that office by Mr. Benjamin Van Kirk, the present 

  The fiftieth anniversary of the occupation of the "old house" in 1815, 
was festively observed on the tenth of November, 1865.

  The chapel erected by the fifteenth Principal in 1848, being found too 
small to accommodate the numerous friends who desired to be present at the 
semi-annual entertainments, and to seat the members of the household on 
special religious occasions, ground was broken in the autumn of 1867, for 
the erection of a more commodious structure. In July of 1868, the building 
was finished, and on the ninth of the month the chapel on the upper floor 
was dedicated to the worship of God. The new wing which joins the old 
chapel on the south, has three stories, and its first floor is occupied as 
a refectory. An organ was erected in the Chapel in the summer of 1869. 

  In the summer of 1873, Mr. Wolle was constrained to add a fourth wing to 
the buildings thus far erected and occupied. It joins the chapel on the 
south, has four stories, containing a gymnasium, a large lecture-room, and 
a suite of dwelling-rooms and dormitories. At the same time he built a 
large and well-appointed steam laundry. The present number of pupils at the 
Institution is one hundred and eighty.

  This school is one of five institutions of higher learning in the United, 
States, which are the property of tile American Moravian Church, and are 
conducted for the benefit of that Church and its Christian enterprises, 
under tile supervision of the Executive Boards of its Provinces, North and 
South. Four of those schools have been in successful operation for 
three-quarters of a century.1

  The Present Trustees of the Bethlehem Seminary are: 
Rev. Robert, de Schweinitz

Rev. Lewis F. Kampmann

Rev. Francis R. Holland

                      THE BOROUGH OF SOUTH BETHLEHEM.

  AFTER the establishment of the Moravians at Bethlehem, in 1741, the 
Society purchased, from time to time, lands contiguous to their settlement, 
not only on the north but also on the south side of the Lehigh, until they 
became possessed of four large and valuable farms, in Lower Saucon and 
Salisbury townships, opposite and above the town. 

  Without following the history of these through the earlier years, it is 
sufficient, as regards their connection with the annals of South Bethlehem, 
that in the year 1847, these four farms, known as 
the "Luckeubach Farm,"
the "Jacobi Farm," 
the "Fuehrer Farm," 
the " Hoffert Farm," were sold by the Moravian Society to Charles A. 
Luckenbach, of Bethlehem (excepting, however, three small parcels, 
comprising, in the aggregate, less than six acres, which had previously 
been sold to Daniel Desh and Francis H. Oppelt). 

  Portions of these tracts were variously disposed of by Mr. Luckenbach, 
which dispositions need not be noticed until we come down to the summer of 
1852, when he laid out, upon his land, a town-plot, which he named 
AUGUSTA, and which was in reality the first commencement of the present 
borough of South Bethlehem.  The location of Augusta may now be described 
as extending north and south, from the track of the North Pennsylvania 
Railroad to the Lehigh River, and east and west from Northampton to Poplar 
street. The first building lot-40 x 176 feet-was purchased by Levin C. 
Peysert, of Bethlehem, for two hundred dollars. The first dwellings, 
erected in the town of Augusta, were three large frame houses, commenced by 
Borhek & Knauss, October 31st, 1853. Many other town lots were sold by Mr. 
Luckenbach, as also two parcels, each of four acres, respectively, to 
Samuel Wetherill, and to the Pennsylvania and Lehigh Zinc Company, and 
thirty-five acres to Hon. Asa Packer, for the use of the Lehigh Valley 
Railroad.  The remainder of the " Luckenbach Farm " -a little less than one 
hundred acres-he sold to Charles W. and Ambrose Rauch, of Bethlehem.

  The "Jacobi Farm," above and adjoining the "Luckenbach," containing one 
hundred and three and a half acres, had come into the possession of 
Charles Brodhead, of Bethlehem, who, by agreement with the Messrs. Rauch, 
added the whole2 of his (Jacobi) tract, and theirs-balance of the 
Luckeubach-in all about two hundred and one acres-to the town-plot of 
Augusta, and then re-christened the town WETHERILL, in honor of John P. 
Wetherill of Philadelphia. This was done in the year 1854. The name of 
Wetherill, however, was not of long continuance; it was succeeded by the 
designation of BETHLEHEM SOUTH, and this in turn was abandoned, on the 
organization of the borough, under the very sensible name which it still 
bears. The growth and progress of the town was very rapid, and its 
commencement dates from the opening of the railroad lines; indeed, it may 
be said to have been wholly the result of their opening; but without them, 
the gigantic manufactories of South Bethlehem would probably never have 
been built.

                     THE LEHIGH VALLEY RAILROAD.

   The company which built and controls this great railway, was first 
incorporated, by Act of Assembly, April 21st, 1846, as "The Delaware, 
Lehigh, Schuylkill and Susquehanna Railroad Company," which was changed to 
the present title of the company, by a supplemental Act passed
January 7th, 1853.

  The original main lines-Mauch Chunk to South Easton, forty-six miles-was 
located in 1851. The work of construction was commenced November 27th, of 
the same year and the road was so far completed in the summer of 1855, that 
on the eleventh of June, trains commenced running between South Easton and 
Allentown, though the heavy rock-cut, just below the former place, had not 
then been completed, nor was the road delivered by the contractor (Hon. Asa 
Packer), to the company, until the twenty-fourth of the following 
September. From that time, through trains ran regularly, and the first 
railway station, of South Bethlehem, was a brick dwelling house which had 
been built on the Luckenbach farm in 1849.

  When one sees and realizes the almost boundless extent of the anthracite 
coal transportation performed by this road, and adds thereto the immense 
passenger traffic, and compares these with the old methods and amounts; of 
freighting and travel, he is lost in amazement. It is, indeed, an almost 
immeasurable change which has been effected, since Charles Miner shipped 
his first cargo of twenty-four tons of coal down the Lehigh, or since 
George Klein established his weekly stage-wagon line between Bethlehem and 

1. The Seminary for Young Ladies at Bethlehem-Nazareth Hall, a Boarding 
School for Boys, at Nazareth, Northampton county, Pa., founded in 
1755,-Linden Hall, a Boarding School for Young Ladles, at Litiz, Lancaster 
county, Pa., founded in 1794-and the Hope Academy for Young Ladles, at 
Hope, Bartholomew county, Ind., founded in 1866, are under the supervision 
of the Executive Board of the Province North. The Academy for Young Ladies 
at Salem, Forsyth county, N. C., founded in 1802, is controlled by the 
Board of the Province South.

2. Excepting seven acres, which he donated to the Lehigh University.

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