The Borough History of Bethlehem

Borough History of Bethlehem by C.O. Zigenfuss, Esq.

AWAY beyond the period (1845), when Bethlehem became a borough, in the age of which Bishop de Schweinitz elsewhere so fully writes, the brave men White, Hazard, Miner and others of the pioneers of the anthracite coal interest, had found “the black diamond,” and had sent down by the town, upon the bosom of the Lehigh, a craft laden with twenty-four tons of the fossil fuel.

This craft was an “Ark”, so called popularly, a rude frame of hemlock,
carrying to Philadelphia the first load of Pennsylvania’s richest resource,
This vessel passed Bethlehem toward dusk of August 9th, 1814, and “was,
prophetic of fleets of argosies, which in after time swept past the site of
the ancient village, all freighted heavily with the spoils of a long past
carboniferous age.” These shipments were made by the “Lehigh Coal Mine
Company,” which was organized as early as 1792, a period when some few men
already dreamed that coal wedded to iron, would yield an offspring of gold,
Later, in 1818, another company came into existence in “The

Two Years later, in 1820, these two corporations consolidated their
interests, resulting in “The Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company,” a concern
that has had a long and useful career of varied success and reverses, whose
fortunes seem at present to be decidedly in the ascendency. The
consolidation led to the construction of the canal, opened in the autumn of
1829, when, on completion of the Delaware Division, arks were abandoned for
the more sightly and more profitable (being much safer) canal-boat, and
these were the pioneers of a modern carboniferous age.

The operations of this great company, in the mining of coal, and in it,
transportation through the valley of the Lehigh, infused a new lift, along
its entire length, to the very outlet, creating it great spirit of unrest.
Already men had experimented with the newly found fuel in the smelting of
iron. This was first successfully accomplished at Catasauqua, in 1840, the
site of the present Crane Iron Company’s extensive furnaces, over which the
veteran experimenter, David Thomas, still keeps a watchful eye.

He was the first to think of the “hot-blast,” the first to apply it,
and, unlike the fortunes of the majority of discoverers, has profited
thereby; having seen Dot only an immense business grow up around him, but
having acquired largely of the Sold that the union of anthracite coal and
iron, through the instrumentality of the hot-blast, has yielded.

A few year later the exclusive policy of the Moravians gave way, and,
seven years later, in 1847, the congregations farms on the south side of
the river were sold; a more liberal spirit possessed the minds of its
people, and Bethlehem passed along with the match of improvement,, that
came thick and fast after 1845. How rapidly that portion, then used only as
terming land, grew, is fully detailed under the beads of “South Bethlehem”
find “Fountain Hill.”

Bethlehem was incorporated into a borough, under an Act entitled, “An Act
to incorporate the village of Bethlehem, in the county of Northampton, into
a borough, which was approved by Francis R. Shunk, on March 6th, 1845, with
the following limits and bounds:

“Beginning at the river Lehigh, at the fording place immediately above
Jones Island; thence up the said river to the mouth of Monocacy Creek;
thence along said creek to the stone bridge at the Hanover township line in
Northampton county; thence along the centre of the upper road, leading from
Allentown to Easton, to the intersection of the road leading from Nazareth
to Philadelphia; thence along the centre of the road last mentioned to the
river Lehigh, to the place of beginning.”

These were extended by an Act approved by Gov. James Pollock, March 24th,
1856, so as to include the territory embraced to the following boundaries:

“Beginning at a stone the southeast corner of said borough, on the north
side of the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company canal, it being a joint
corner of lands of the said Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company and the
lands of the congregation of the United Brethren in the borough of
Bethlehem and its vicinity; thence through the lands of P. H. Goepp the
congregation of the United Brethren William Luckenbach, now or late of
Aaron w. Radle Y, F. Fenner north, five, and one-half degree; east, two
hundred and seventy-eight perches; thence through the lands of F. Fenner,
John Fritag, John J. Levers and Daniel Desh, to the forks of the Easton and
Nazareth road where it reaches the present east line of the borough, north,
eighty-four and one-half degrees west, a distance of one hundred and four
and one-fourth perches. Also that this territory so included shall
constitute a part of the election and school district, of the borough of
Bethlehem, and shall be subject to all laws relating to said borough.”

These boundaries have not since been changed. Under the charter, the
borough was organized in March, 15, with C. A. Luckenbach, the, present
President of the First National Bank, as Burgess. In 1847, by special Act,
the authorities were permitted to borrow $1,500 for the purpose of grading
streets, etc.

The growth of the town was very rapid, a village of eight hundred souls
in 1840, showing, in the census of 1850, as a borough containing two
hundred and nineteen dwellings, three hundred and twenty-nine families, and
a total population of 1,516 souls.

Following is, the assessment for the year 1853:

Number of acres of land, 194, with all other real estate assessed at
Valuation $309,197
Valuation of Occupations and Professions 56,250
Excess of ditto 4,285
Money’s at Interest 572,514
Value of Horses, and Cattle (96 horses, 83 cows) 6,507
Value of Stocks in Banks 52,085
Value of Pleasure Carriage (44 carriages) 1,865
Excess of Furniture 1,000
Total Amount of Valuation $1,994,269
Sales Tax $3,008 44
County Tax 2,646 24
School Tax 2,870 00
Total $8,524 68

Number of Taxables 405
Houses 207
Schools 3
Teachers 6
Scholars 185

There were at that time, in the borough, thirty-two stores of various
kinds., viz:
Wm. L. Brown

Grider & Lerch

John Lerch, Jr.

Jacob Rice

Wm. Luckenbach

Lewis F. Beckel

A. Wolle & Co.

Simon Rau

Shimer & Hillman

M. L. Reich

Joseph Stopp

M. Beidler

Henry G. Lange

John M. Micksch

Chas. W. Rauch

A. L. Belling

Charles Bodder

Jas. T. Borhek

J. F. Erwin

Henry B. Luckenbach

Henry J. Carter

B. E. Peissert

Adam Giesing

H. B. Jones

Charles L. Knauss

F. I. Krausse

P. Ricksecker

F. Borhek

A. H. Rauch

W. F. Miller

Herman Yost

Christian Lange


The three public houses were kept by Luckenbach & Anderson, John J.
Levers, and Caleb Yohe; two grist-mills, owned by Jacob Luckenbach, and F.
Zoller, and a distillery and brewery, both owned and run by Joseph Benke.

The population of the borough had increased to 2,866 in 1860, and to
4,512 in 1870. Since then the ratio of increase has been fully as large. In
1870, one Indian was included in its census.

In the same year that the borough was incorporated, there came to
Bethlehem, Dr. F. A. Oppelt, a German, of excellent taste and a high order
of intelligence. Attracted by the beautiful location of the town, and
especially by the Mountain Spring, with its pure, sparkling water, he
located here, and the following year opened the first public institution,
on the south side of the river, This was a Hydropathic Asylum. Dr., Oppelt
continued in the work for twenty-nine years, until 1875, when the property
passed into the hands of the Trustees of St. Luke’s Hospital, a noble
institution of charity, conducted under the auspices of the Protestant
Episcopal Church. While the Water Care was in existence, over 3,000 persons
were treated in it, of whom but five died in the institution.

In 1865, the Lehigh and Susquehanna Railroad, the new rail line
constructed by the old Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company, was also made
tributary to the commercial interests of Bethlehem, and with its leased
branch, the Lehigh and Lackawanna Railroad, has; greatly benefitted the
town. The latter road has a brilliant future, when it will be, extended
through the upper sections of the county to intersect with the Delaware,
Lackawanna and Western Road beyond the Blue Mountains. At present it
extends to Chapman, the site of the celebrated Chapman Slate Quarries. The
road was built mainly through the enterprise of Hon. Charles Brodhead, of
Bethlehem. Originally it was leased to the Lehigh and Susquehanna Railroad
Company, and subsequently with that road leased to the Central Railroad of
New Jersey. The Lehigh and Susquehanna Company have erected a fine brick
depot on Main street, and a neat frame depot at Bethlehem Junction, the
intersection of that road with the Lehigh and Lackawanna Railroad.

With the advent of the North Pennsylvania Railroad, new life was infused
into the capitalists at Bethlehem, and the erection of an iron works was
projected, and this resulted in the magnificent mills, steel works and
furnaces of the Bethlehem Iron Company, a history and description of which
will be found elsewhere. The works have been most successful, and have
contributed largely to the prosperity of the town.


In the days of Governor Wolf, himself a native of this county, the
public school system was adopted by the people of Bethlehem, and the
children of rich and poor were educated together and alike, so far as the
elementary branches were considered. From the earliest days the Unitas
Fratrum, or Moravians, had conducted good schools, and on the passage of
the Common School Law of 1835, these were made in part common schools, and
the district that year accepted the provisions of the Act. The first State
appropriation of which there is any record is found in the Treasurer’s
books for 1836, as follows: “quota of unexpended State appropriation of
1835, ten dollars and thirty-five cents.” The same year (1836) the “State
appropriation, including banking money,” was one hundred and twenty-five
dollars and forty-eight cents, and the amount of “State appropriation for
1836 of County Treasurer,” was an additional forty-five dollars and
fifty-nine cents.

The tax collected in 1836, for school purposes, amounted to six hundred
and fourteen dollars and eighty-two cents, for the collecting of which, a
Commission of eight dollars was allowed one John C. Warner. The total
receipts for the year were, eight hundred and three dollars and eighty-four
and one half cents, and the end of the fiscal year, April 10th, showed an
unexpended balance of eight-nine dollars and ninety-two and one-half cents,
to which facts, Jacob Wolle, Joseph Jones, and Joseph Santee, the first
auditors, certified.

The first teachers were: Matthew Crist (then spelled Christ, who still
lives in the town at a ripe old age); and Jacob G. Kemmer, long since
gathered to the fathers. Their salaries at first were twenty-five dollars
per month, and for many years did not exceed thirty-three dollars and
thirty-three cents. These were private schools, it must be remembered, and
these salaries not alone covered tuition, but also room rent, fuel, etc.

The State appropriation for 1837, amounted to four hundred and fifty-two
dollars and forty-five cents, which was from some unexplained cause reduced
to two hundred dollars, in 1838, and went back to two hundred and nineteen
dollars, in 1839, at which figure it remained for several years, when it
took a sudden increase, on which line it continued until, tile present
year, the appropriation amounted to $1,117,80. In consequence of the
non-attendance of the children of the Moravian families-that denomination
having an extensive Parochial School-the appropriation from the State is
not as large, as the town would seem to be entitled to.

The first school building was erected on Wall street, in 1852, at an
expense of about $2,300; Mr. John H. Yost having been the builder. It was
subsequently enlarged and improved, but in 1870, it was again found too
small to accommodate the children of the town, though in the mean time, a
building had also been erected in the Third Ward, on Garrison street, and
that year a handsome three-story building was erected at the corner of
North and Centre streets, at a cost of about $75,000. The Garrison Street
School was then discontinued, and the pupils were easily accommodated in
the Franklin (as the new building is called), and the Wall Street, schools.
The schools are graded, and the instruction is very thorough. The graduates
of the High School are readily admitted into the Freshman Class of Lehigh
University. The present board has done great service to the public in
raising the standard of scholarship of the schools and in economy in the
administration of school affairs. Special honor belongs to Mr. John &
Zimmele, the President; and George L. Baum, Esq., the Secretary of the
Board. Six hundred children at present attend the schools, who are
instructed by thirteen teachers in twelve rooms. Cost of the schools is
about $14,000.


Is an old-established and ably conducted institution of great popularity
at home and abroad.


It was for many years conducted by Prof. Charles H. Schwartz, now of the
firm of Schwartz & Weaver, booksellers, but some years since passed into
the hands of Rev. Prof. Ambrose Rondthaler, a clergyman of the Moravian
faith, and an educator of many years experience. The school is situated on
High street, near Broad, directly opposite the Salem Lutheran Church.
A magnificent iron bridge gives Broad street an outlet east over the
Monocacy. This bridge, was the means of building tip West Bethlehem, or, as
it is now called, Bethlehem Heights. This is a town of probably 1,200
population, on the West side of the Monocacy Creek, and is located in
Lehigh county.


Bethlehem is well supplied with fire apparatus, and some gentlemen have
interesting histories of the old “Perseverance” engine and other matters
pertaining to the old fire apparatus.

This old engine, then in charge of Perseverance Fire Company, No. 1, was
replaced by a more modern hand-engine, and that was in turn superseded by a
beautiful Silsby steamer, which the company still uses. This company, which
was reorganized in 1848, and again in 1873, also has a beautiful
hose-carriage, and about eight hundred feet of leather hose. In 1873,
trouble between the old Company and the, Town Council occurred; the company
was suspended and the Town Council took possession of the property,
Thereupon, the company, being an incorporated body, brought a suit in
Equity, which resulted in a verdict for the company of the amount claimed,
in the lower Court, The case was carried up, when the judgment was
reversed, on the ground that the suit had been improperly brought. The
additional opinion-important to all municipal bodies-was given that
property, purchased out of donations from the people, was trust property,
and neither the company nor the borough could ever dispose of it, nor
divert it from its original purposes.


Have a fine hose-carriage, and about seven hundred feet of hose.


Has an elegant Silsby steamer. This company had the first hose-carriage
used in town, and in 1838 purchased the first leather hose used.

The remaining company, is the


They have a very handsome truck, with several hundred feet of ladders, all
the property of the company.

The Reliance house is on Broad street, near Main-two-story brick; the
Perseverance house is on the same street, near Centre-two-story brick, with
stables; the Nisky house is on Market street, Dear Centre, opposite,
Trinity Episcopal Church, and adjoining it, is the Diligence house. The
borough authorities own all these properties save one, and have a mortgage
on that. The borough owns all the apparatus save one. Service in the
department is altogether voluntary, excepting cleaning of engines, repairs,
&c., for which Town Council pays liberally. The people, too, are liberal in
their subscriptions to the fire companies picnic-s, excursions, parades,
&c., &c.

Only one company, the Perseverance, keeps horses, but the Reliance is
furnished horses from an adjoining livery stable, on occasions of fires.


The Gas Works are elsewhere fully spoken of it may, however, not be out of
place to say that the street, were lighted with lamps as early as 1792
(probably a decade before that), and these oil lamps were superseded by gas
on Thursday evening, July 13th, 1854, on which night the gas lamps were
first lighted. The expense of lighting the lamps had been borne by private
subscription, but when gas was substituted, the Town Council assumed the
charge. The lamps are extinguished at 10 o’clock.


There are two breweries in the town, both of which manufacture a popular
of Matthias Uhl, on Union street, is to much the more extensive, and was
established years ago by John Schilling, who now lives to retirement in
South Bethlehem. The other is on the incline of the hill on which the town
stands, on the banks of the Monocacy, and is conducted by William Fritsche,
Rennig’s brewery, on the Lehigh Mountain, near the town, is also an
extensive concern, and a favorite resort in the summer afternoons and


The stores of Bethlehem are numerous, beautiful, and imposing; and all of
them carry very large stocks, The four principal dry-goods stores are those of

Lerch, Rice & Co.

Traeger & Austin

Cyrus R. Lerch,




Cortrigla & Co.

Mr. James K. Rauch has an elegant jewelry store, on Main street.


The confectionery store of Ambrose H. Rauch & Son has won an enviable
reputation throughout Eastern Pennsylvania, and is one of the largest
establishments of its kind in the State.

The hotels are seven in number; and three of them, the “Sun,” “Eagle,”
and “American,” are first-class houses. The “Sun” was opened in 1760, and
licensed in 1761.

The private residences are mainly of brick; and, without exception,
slate-roofed. Many of them are beautiful in design, and luxurious and
elegant in interior arrangement. It has been estimated that in Bethlehem
there is either a piano or an organ to every other house; and in the summer
season, when windows are thrown open, the evening promenaders on the
beautiful, shaded streets of the town, are greeted by sweet sounds of
harmony at every step. This is an evidence of the general diffusion of a
high order of intelligence among the masses of the residents, and it is
this that makes the beautiful town doubly attractive as a place Of business
or residence.

For many years, the town has been the resort, for the summer season, of
hundreds of the best families of Philadelphia, Boston, and New York; and
the number is augmented at every season. These spend the season in rest, in
the cool hotels, promenades upon the shady streets, and rambles in the
beautiful Nisky Hill Park. There are also pleasant journeys to the mine,
both iron and zinc; visits to the immense works for the reduction of these
ores: and there are any number of historic points of interest that may be
visited In the evening the bosom of the Lehigh is alive with rowers, in
their light and speedy canoes; and pleasant gatherings, are had upon the
Evergreen and beautiful Calypso Island.

The old Moravian Cemetery, is a spot of never failing and never ending
interest. Yearly, too, hundreds of the upwards of 6,000 alumni of the
Moravian Female Seminary return to look upon their alma mater, and to
express their astonishment at her growth, and the growth of her surroundings.

The present population of Bethlehem is about 6,500; but it is the centre
of a compact population of at least 15,000.


Burgess, C. N. Beckel

Treasurer, William V. Knauss

Secretary, M. K. Musselman

High Constable, Joel Shitz

Street Supervisor, Peter Dech

John K. Dech

Aaron Yost

Tilghman H, Blakely

Simon S. Bitting

A. A. Luckenbach

William Seibert

Samuel Riegel

Barnet Fenner

Robert Rau.


Burgess acting as President; Treasurer, William V. Knauss; Town Clerk
as Secretary. Consisting of twelve members, with Commissioners:
M. K. Snyder, Joseph Hummel, John F. Walp
John Walp, Superintendent; Charles Rickert, Engineer.


Six per cent Coupon Bond issued amounting to $32,600 00
Floating debt 3,000 00
$35,600 00
Valuation, $3,3877,840 00

Assessment-three-tenth of one per cent., $10,163 52
Inventory of Borough Property made February 19, 1877:
Real Estate $ 7,500 00
Personal Property 574 61
(Fire Department)
Real Estate, 2,850 00
Personal Property, 9,424 00
$20,348 61

Bonds, Issued $38,200 00
Floating Debt 4,000 00
$42,200 00
(Department Property.)
Real Estate, $18,000 00
Personal, 6,623 55

24,623 55
Add Borough 20,338 61
Total $44,972 16


Chartered, February 7th, 1853, with authorized capital of $20,000; four
hundred shares; par value, fifty dollars, The company commenced to furnish
gas, January 26th, 1854. The works are located on Canal street and Gas
alley, near the New street bridge.

Present amount of stock, $65,850. For a time after commencement of
business, the company paid six per cent dividends, but latterly they have
increased to eight per cent.


Was incorporated by Act of Assembly, May 3d, 1864. Commissioners, Aaron
W. Radley, John T. Levers, Richard W. Leibert, and Herman Duster. This
company’s bridge over the Lehigh, connecting the boroughs of Bethlehem and
South Bethlehem, at New street, was built in 1866 and 1867, at a cost of
$60,000. It was opened for travel September 2d, in the latter year. The
structure is thirty-six feet above low water-mark, rests upon eight piers,
spans the tracks of the Lehigh and Susquehanna and the Lehigh Valley
railroads, the Lehigh Canal, the Lehigh River, Monocacy Creek and Sand
Island. It is 1,046 feet in length upon the floor. Its two ends rest in
Northampton county, while the central piers stand in the county of Lehigh;
the entire width of which, at that point, is Spanned by the bridge.
The first Board of Directors were

President, Charles N. Beckel

Robert H. Sayre

Elisha P. Wilbur

John J. Levers

Herman A. Doster

Robert A. Abbott

Secretary and Treasurer, Herman A. Doster


The company organized for the construction of this bridge, was
incorporated May 1st, 1869.

The structure, which is of iron, commences at the west side of Main
street, at the termination of Broad, and thence crosses Monocacy Creek to
West Bethlehem. Its height above the creek is sixty-seven feet, and it also
carries the travel high above the tracks of the Lehigh and Lackawanna
Railroad, on the West Bethlehem side. The length of the bridge is four
hundred and sixty feet, in three spans of one hundred feet, and two of
eighty feet each. Width, thirty-two feet, clear, viz: A roadway of twenty
feet in centre, with a foot-walk of six feet in width on each side.
The work was commenced June 10th, 1869, and the bridge was opened for
travel May 17th, 1871. The present capital stock of the company is $50,000,
in shares of fifty dollars each,



Of H. D. Yeager, on Sand Island, occupied, the site of the first Moravian
Mill-built in 1743-a portion of the old mill being still standing with Mr.
Yeager’s buildings.


This is also the site of the Woolen mills which were established by Lewis
Doster about 1835. Mr. Duster commenced the weaving of woolen goods, with
only one power-loom, but gradually added to his machinery until, in 1850,
the business was large enough to demand more extensive facilities than the
old mill could furnish, and he therefore built anew upon another site.


The first building for a foundry, on a small scale, was erected in the
year 1824, by Joseph Miksch, at that time in the locksmith business on the
west side of Main street, Bethlehem. Before the completion of the works, Mr.
Miksch died, and the unfinished foundry was purchased of his administrator
by Charles F. Beckel, about the first of January, 1825. He proceeded to
Complete the Works and open the business. His blast for melting the iron
was produced by bellows, worked by horse-power. He carried on the business
it that place until 1829, when he removed the machinery to the present
between the (then) just finished Lehigh Canal and the river, where be
had erected suitable buildings. The principal object for removing to that
place was the obtaining of water-power from the canal.

There has been no change of ownership since that time. Mr. Beckel has,
however, been assisted in the management of the business by his son,
Charles N. Beckel, who is a scientific and practical builder of iron
bridges, of which Mr. Beckel has built more than thirty for locations in
Northampton and the neighboring counties.

The following notice of the foundry appeared in the Philadelphia
Commercial and Manufacturers Gazette, of thirty-first of December, 1874:


The Pioneer Machine-shop and Foundry of the Lehigh Valley is that owned and
operated by the much respected and veteran machinist, Mr. Charles F. Beckel.
Mr. Beckel was the first iron-founder in this section of the country, and
in 1825, when this beautiful valley was but sparsely settled, he
established a small shop on Main street. The demand for castings at that
time was rather limited and consisted of light articles, such as plough and
stove-casting &c. But the population of this rich valley soon increased
and with it trade began to look up, and Mr. Beckel was soon compelled to
seek more commodious quarters, so be constructed suitable works in what is
known as old South Bethlehem, in Lehigh county, on the banks of the canal.
These works are operated by water-power. The main building is 30 x50 feet
and two stories in height.

The first floor is occupied as a general machine shop, and is fitted up
with all modern appliances and late improvements in labor saying machinery.
The second story is occupied as a pattern shop, and is filled to
overflowing with a valuable collection of patterns of various kinds.
Adjoining the main shop is a foundry 30 x 60 feet, where are produced all
kinds of green and city sand castings. The productions of Mr. Beckel’s
establishment consist in part of bridge, house and mill castings and irons,
ore and quartz crushers, horse and steam-hoists, pumps and machine work


The first newspaper printed in Bethlehem was called Die Bien (The Bee),
published only in German, by Dr. Abraham Haebener. Printed by Julian Held,
about 1847.


A Republican paper, was started about the year 1853, by E. H. Rauch.
About 1860, the name was changed to the Bethlehem Advocote. It ceased to
exist about 1862.


A weekly journal of the American Moravian Church, was established
January 1st, 1856 Rev. E. de Schweinitz, L. F. Kampman, and F. F. Hagen
were the first editors. It was first published in Philadelphia, in quarto
form. In June, 1858, Rev E. de Schweinitz became sole editor
January 1st, 1859, the paper was removed to Bethlehem, and Rev. E. Tinseman
became its editor.

In July 1861, Rev. E. de Schweinitz again became its editor, with special
contributors. January 1st, 1862, the form was changed to 21 x 28 inches. In
March, Rev. H. A. Brickenstein became assistant editor.

The paper was again slightly enlarged, January 1st, 1864.
January 1st, 1867, it was enlarged to its present size, 26 x 39 inch.
July, 1867, Rev. H. A. Brickenstein became its editor, July 1873,
Rev. Jesse Blickensderfer became editor, with a corps of editorial
contributors, August 1st, 1876, Rev. E. T. Kluge, the present editor, took
charge. Circulation, 1,350.


A German journal of the church, established 1866, as a biweekly. It was
changed to a weekly, October, 1871, Size, 15 x 23 inches. Under same
editorial management as the Moravian. Circulation, 600.


A monthly, illustrated paper, for the Sunday-school. Size, 15 x 21 inches
Established January, 1871, Under same editorial management as the Moravian,
Circulation, 5,300.


The establishing of a daily newspaper, in Bethlehem, was a very risky
business-by some, thought foolhardy. The community was considered,
particularly among newspaper men, one peculiarly repellent of enterprises
of a journalistic character, Every secular newspaper which had ever been
started had died, from natural and other causes.

D.J. Godlike, who came to Bethlehem from Easton, where he had been
carrying on a small job printing office, in co-partnership with Wm.
Eichman, entered, with his partner, into an, agreement with
General W. E. Doster and others, to publish a political paper here of the
Republican persuasion. For reasons which it is not necessary to give in
detail, the paper was called the Weekly Chronicle, and was kept
neutral during Mr. Eichman’s connection with it. General Doster took Mr.
Eichman’s interest, and, practicing law in Easton, left the paper in Mr.
Godshalk’s charge. The General, tiring of newspaper annoyances and
responsibilities disposed of his interest to Mr. Godshalk, who, very
shortly, stopped the publication of the weekly, and on Monday, the fourth
day of February 1867, the first issue of a daily paper, in Bethlehem, was
made by him.

The beginning of the daily was very humble and unpretentious. It was
first published from the old cabinet-making shop of the late Eckert, where
the Central Express office is now located. Both sides were printed at
once, by hand, on a Washington, hand-press. The first paper, at his earnest
request, was “pulled” by – Edwards, who was then a train-hand on the North
Pennsylvania Railroad, and is now baggage-master at the Berks street depot,
Philadelphia. The size of the first issue-Daily Times-was 13 x 20 inches.
The people of Bethlehem took kindly to their ” little daily,” and gave it
great encouragement and support, in the way of advertising and of printing.
The editor and proprietor gathered at the locals that were not brought to
the office by his friends, set type, read proof, set, and worked off jobs,
wrote locals and editorials, having as assistants one devil and one
journeyman printer.

On June 11th, 1867, four months after starting, the paper was enlarged to
17 x 24 inches, and the business of the office, in advertising and job
printing, had comfortably prospered. In 1868, the paper was further
enlarged to 18 x 28 inches, and the office was removed to No. 25 Broad
street, its present location. At this time the addition had become so
large, and the forms were so much enlarged that it became necessary to get
a power-press, and a Cottrell & Babcock country press was put in, and the
same was turned by hand, for a time; but business still increased, and a
steam-engine was added for motive power. The employees of the establishment
had greatly increased in numbers, and the office came into prominence for
doing a great quantity of first-class job printing.

On the eighteenth of April, 1869, the Daily Times was enlarged to 20 x 44
inches, and the Weekly Times was established in the same year. At this time
Wm. Hackett, Jr., Esq., a young lawyer of Easton, became associate editor
of the papers, and J. Howard Burke, Esq., his former law partner, was a
frequent contributor. The Weekly Times subsequently added the words “and
Educator” to its title, Mr. Wm. N. Walker, county Superintendent of Public
Schools, being the educational editor, and writing also for the Daily


January 3d, 1870, the Daily Times was reduced in size to 23 x 33 inches.
In this year Mr. C. O. Ziegenfuss, the present (1877) associate or local
editor, connected himself with the paper in a reportorial capacity, and has
been steadily employed on the paper ever since, except for about nine
months in 1874. He bought the Morning Progress, of South Bethlehem, in that
year, and run it for that time, and in this year the Times and the Progress
were consolidated. The consultation lasted from the sixth to the twentieth
of April, 1874 when the Times came back to its old quarters, and the
Progress was discontinued, and Mr. Z. resumed his labors on the Times.

Experience is a great teacher, and the proprietors, long before this,
became D. J. Godshalk & Co., through the silent partnership of
Mr. Geo. H. Myers, whose interest was, for a time, represented and worked
by Mr. Frank Hammann, found it best to again reduce the size of the paper,
and on breaking up the consolidation with the Progress, the Times took its
present size.

In May of this year, 1874, Mr. Joseph A. Weaver, who had for years been a
successful bookseller in Bethlehem,


became a full partner in the establishment, by buying Mr. Myer’s interest,
and a part of Mr. Godshalk’s. Almost immediately, new type, new presses,
paper critters, arid other machinery were put in, and the possibilities of
the office-for more and finer work-were enlarged; and the business
followed. The firm name remained unchanged- D. J. Godshalk & Co. Since then,
the office has enjoyed an uninterrupted and lucrative patronage, but the
improvements in the paper, four time to time, have left a small margin of
profit, that department of the business being regarded rather as a public
benefaction, than an enterprise for private profit. And herein lies the
success of The Bethlehem Daily Times.


Secret Societies flourish well in Bethlehem, and have done a noble work.


Bethlehem Lodge, No. 283, A. Y. M.-A. L. 5877. Meets Wednesday, on or before
Full Moon, constituted, 1854.


Bro. Samuel Krause, W. M.

Bro. Corlandt Whitehead, S. W.

Bro. Uriah J. Wenner, J. W.

Bro. William V. Knauss

Treas.; Bro. Mathew Schmidt

Past Masters.

Sam’l Wetherill

Jesse H. Morgan

Ernst F. Bleck

Rich’d W. Leibert

Louis F. Beckel

Marcus C. Fetter

Cornelius M. Knauss

Bernhard E. Lehman

Abraham Stout, M.D.

Morris A. Borhek

B. Stanley Goodwin

Allen J. Lawall

Augustine N. Leinbach, M.D.

George H. Myers

David D. Godshalk

Charles C. Tombler

Zinzendorf H. R. A. Chapter, No. 216-A. I. 2407. Meets second Monday of
each month.


Comp. M. Erskine Abbott, M. E. H. P.

Comp. Matthew J. Schmid, King

Comp. David J. Godshalk, Scribe

Comp. Bernhard E. Lehman, Treas.

Comp. William V. Knauss, Sec’y

Past High Priests-

Jesse H. Morgan

Bernhard E. Lehman

H. Stanley Goodwin

Aug. N. Leinbach, M.D.

Charles C. Tomler

Morris A. Borhek

George H. Myers

Allen J. Lawall

James T. Borhek, Jr.

Bethlehem Council, No. 36, K. S. E and S.M. -Anno Dep. 2877. Meets first
Thursday of each month. Constituted, 1868.


Ill. Comp. Allen J. Lawall, T. L. G. M.

Ill. Comp. Matthew J. Schmid, D. I. M. G.

Ill. Comp. David J. Godshalk, P. C. of W.

Ill. Comp. Cornelius M. Knauss, M. of Ex.

Ill. Comp. Wm. I. Knauss, Recorder

Past T. I. G. M.-

Bernhard E. Lehman

Marcus C. Fetter

Richard W. Leibert

George H. Myers

Jesse H. Morgan

Charles C. Tombler

Augustine N. Leinbach, M.D.

William V. Knauss


J. K. Taylor Post, No. 182,-Composed of ex-soldiers, sailors, and marines,
of the War of the Rebellion; instituted, May 25th, 1869, by
Colonel W. W. Hammersley, of Post 13, Allentown. The following honorably
discharged officers and soldiers were mustered:

Majors- A. H. Selfridge and C. E. Humphrey

Captains- A. Abbott and O. A. Luckenbach


Edw. Hammann

J. R. Roney

D. J. Godshalk

F. A. Clauder

O. B. Desh

Charles Auer

Elex. Ehrig

Objects.-To preserve and strengthen those kind and fraternal feelings which
bind together the soldiers, sailors, and marinas, who united to suppress
the late Rebellion. To assist such former comrades-in-arms, as need help
and protection; and to extend needful aid to the widows and orphans of
those who have fallen. Present membership, one hundred and eleven. Meets
every Friday evening, in Grand Army Hall, Nickum’s Building, Main street.

Present officers.-

Post Commander, P. O. Sneller

Senior Vice Commander, David Shartz

Junior Vice Commander, Frank Leffler

Adjutant, V. C. Kleckner

Quartermaster, Fred J. Rice

Surgeon, Frank J. Engle

Chaplain, H. D. Yeager

Sergeant-Major, W. H. Fahs

Quartermaster-Sergeant, W. Warnock

Officer of Day, C. W. Jennings

Officer of Guard, D. W. Saphire


Keystone, Lodge, No. 78, was instituted November 14th, 1842, by

Joseph Browne, M. W. G. M.

John C. Yeager, R. W. D. G. M.

Thomas M. McKeever, R. W. G. W.

F. Knox Morton, R W. G. T.

Jacob Risting, R. W. G. Mar.

Nathan W. Kinley, R, W. G. C.

A. S. Batchelder, R. W. G. G.

William Curtis, R. W. G. S.

First officers.-

B. B. Heller, N. G.

G. H. Grundie, V. G.

James T. Borbek, Sec’y

John Sigley, Asst. Sec.

G. Grunewalt, Treas

Present membership, one hundred and seventy-one. Valuation of Lodge
property, $6,942.90. Meets Thursday evenings.

Monocacy Lodge, No. 341- Present number of members, one hundred and
sixty-eight. Valuation of Lodge property, $2,182.89. Meets Tuesday

Wreath of Friendship Lodge, No. 917, South Bethlehem, Instituted October
29th, 1875. Twenty-three charter members Present number of members,
thirty-five, Valuation of Lodge property, $332.67.

Star Encampment, No. 139, I. O. of O. F., was instituted by the following

Grand Officers: John B. Springer, M. W. G. P.

Francis M. Reo, M. E. G. H. P

George H. Deweis, R. W. G. S. W.

John Curtis, R. W. G. J. W.

H. Simmon, R. W. G. Treas.

Samuel N. Foster, W. G. Sen’r

Wm. Curtis, Grand Scribe.

January 6th, 1866.-The following were the charter members:

Chief Patriarch, F. J. Hans

High Priest, A. W. Schada

Senior Warden, Wm. A. Ross

Junior Warden, G. Armprister

Scribe, Geo. W. Snyder

Treasurer, J. V. Stolzenbach; and nine other Patriarchs.

The following are the Past Chief Patriarchs:

F. J. Hans

A. W. Schada

William A. Ross

J. V. Stotzenbach

Levi Christine

T. H. Blakely

William Stubblebine

Owen H. Ott

George H. Getter

Henry Fehr

Geo. Fritchman

Joseph Rothrock

John F. Danner

John F. Stadiger

Charles Hinkel

J. R Reichart

A. E. Wohlbach

Jacob F. Ruthardt

M. H. Heckman

R. D. Heckman

Jno. T. Yost

James R. King

Now in membership, one hundred and four. Total worth of Encampment, $1,358.05.

Elmira Lodge, No. 49, Degree, of Rebekah, I. O. O. F- Located in Bethlehem.


The first brass Band in Bethlehem was organized in 1839 bands of music
had existed from time to time for a half a century previous. The band of
1839, led by John Sigley, “on the bugle,” lived only four years. A reed
bond succeeded it, and this was converted into a brass band, in 1845 or
1846. For Dearly twenty years this band was under the successful leadership
of Lewis F, Beckel, an artistic performer on the cornet. The band attained
a position foremost in the State for excellence of music and high moral and
social standard of its members, and its services were sought from distant
points. After it had disbanded, various attempts at reorganization were
made, but proved futile, until in 1873, when the present Bethlehem Cornet
Band was organized. The band consists of thirty-six members, under the
leadership of Professor William H. Bush.



Was chartered in 1863. Capital paid in, $74,000.

C. A. Luckenbach, President

Rudolph P. Rauch, Cashier

Capital afterwards increased to $200,000: and, in 1867, further increased
to $500,000; but in April, 1876, reduced to $300,000, the present amount.
President, C. A. Luckenbach
Cashier, Cyrus Brooder


Chartered September 14th, 1872. Open for business, September 21st, same
year. The capital, when started, was $200,000; afterwards increased to
$300,000. Par value of shares, one hundred dollars. Has paid a dividend of
eight per cent. every year, except the first year started. Has a surplus of
$30,000. Deposits are over $200,000.

Dr. D. B. Linderman, President
Henry G. Borhek, Cashier
Francis Weiss, Vice-President


Was organized under charter granted by the Legislature of Pennsylvania,
in October, 1863.
William Wilson, President
James T. Borhek, Cashier
In May, 1866, upon the death of William Wilson, Charles B. Daniel, the
present President, was elected to the position.

Capital stock is $100,000; the deposits, $300,000. Par value to be twenty
dollars per share, in installments; only one having been called in, five




The first Methodist sermon preached in Bethlehem was by
Rev. Joshua H. Turner, a member of the Philadelphia Conference, on the
eleventh day of May 1848. The second sermon, the twenty-fifth of the same
month, by the same minister. Services were held at the residence of James
Lehr, a member of the Evangelical Association, and said to be the only
church member in Bethlehem, at that time, outside the Moravian congregation.

No other service was held at Bethlehem until fall, on account of being
unable to secure a house; the Evangelical minister holding services at Mr. Lehr’s.

At that time, a Methodist family moved to Bethlehem, from Allentown, and
permission was obtained to hold services at their residence, but, owing to
the prejudices of the owner of the house against the denomination, it was
given up; and no more, preaching was had until the next spring (1849), when
Rev. David R. Thomas and Rev. Mr. Stockton held services in the Odd Fellows
Hall, on New street, once a month.

In the year 1851, Rev. M. A. Day commenced holding regular services in
the same hall. At that time there was but one Methodist family in
Bethlehem; James K. Hillman, wife and daughter, all members. Services were
held every third Wednesday, and the congregation gradually increased.
In the spring of 1852, Rev. W. H. Brisbane was appointed to the Allentown
circuit, of which Bethlehem was then a part. He organized a class, and
appointed Samuel M. Ritter leader.

The members of the class were:

Samuel M. Ritter and wife
James K. Hillman and wife
Thomas M. Sayler and wife
Amanda Hillman and Sarah A. Ritter. -nine in all.

Services were held every second Sabbath, until the spring of 1853, when
Rev. Samuel Irwin succeeded Mr. Brisbane. Mr. Irwin labored earnestly, and
succeeded in awakening great interest. In January of that year, twenty
conversions were made; seventeen of whom joined the then small class. In
the second year of Mr. Irwin’s labors (1854), the first Methodist church
was built, on Centre street, between Market and Church. The corner-stone
was laid in July, Rev. W. H. Ryan officiating; and the dedication services
preached, January 8th, 1855, by Rev, M. Anderson, D.D., of Easton, Pa.,
assisted by Rev. George W. Brindle, of Philadelphia. Immediately following,
some twenty-five or thirty were converted, and the greater part joined the
Methodist church, Rev. Henry A. Hobbs followed Mr. Irwin, and some eight
more conversions were made during his labors. During the year 1869, the
old church was torn down, and a new one erected on a part of the old lot.
The corner-stone was laid September 11th and 12th, by Rev. Joseph S. Cook,
assisted by the Rev. George Cummins and Rev. W. J. Paxson. The lecture-room
was dedicated January 31st, 1870, by Rev. James Mill, of Philadelphia,
assisted by Rev. George Cummins

The present pastor, Rev. J. Y. Swindells, commenced his labors
April, 1874. In 1875, principally through the liberality of one of the
members, Mrs. Eliza A. Yoder, the main audience-room of the church was
completed; and dedicated, July, 1875, by Rev. R. L. Dashiell, D.D.,
assisted by

Rev. William B. Wood

Rev. M. A. Day

Rev. G. Cummins

Rev. S. J. Kemble

Rev. George S. Broadbent

The present valuation is $25,000; the membership, one hundred and forty;
and Sabbath-school of one hundred and fifty scholars, which was organized,
in 1854, with thirteen scholars. J. L. C. Miller was the first (and is the
present) superintendent; which position he has held, except one year, ever
since it organization.


In the fifth decade of the present century, Lutherans began to settle at
Bethlehem. As their number increased, they felt the necessity of making
provision for the worship of God according to their faith. In the year
1849, a number of preliminary meetings were held, which resulted in the
organization of the Evangelical Lutheran Congregation of Bethlehem. The
first regular service was held in the upper hall of a building known as
“The Armory,” situated on the north side of Broad street, between New and
Centre streets. The Rev. Joshua Jaeger, of Allentown, preached on this
occasion. This was in the mouth of October, 1849.

An agreement was made with the Reformed, to erect a church which should
be used by the Lutherans on one Sunday, and by the Reformed on the next-a
Union church. Having secured, From the Moravians, a suitable lot on the
west side of High street, near Broad street, the edifice known as “Salem
Church” was begun in the year 1850, the corner-stone being laid on the
first of September. A collection taken at the time amounted to
fifty-three dollars and ten cents. In the spring of the following year the
church was completed so far that, on the fifth of April 1851, it could be
dedicated to the service of the Triune God. The treasurer reported that at
the consecration a collection amounting to seventy-three dollars and
twenty-seven cents was taken up. At that time, the church had no steeple,
clock, bell, nor pews. Portable wooden benches were used as seats. The
windows were square at the top, In lighting up the church in the evening,
common tallow candles were used.

About the same time that the church was built, the congregation secured a
plot of ground on Church street, which was laid out as a cemetery.

Among the names prominent in the records of that time, are those of

John H. Yost

John Opp

Joseph B. Jones

James Walp

John Walp

A.W. Radley, and others.

For a time the congregation was supplied by the Rev. J. Richards. The
first regular pastor was the Rev. C. K. Welden, who entered upon his duties
in November 1851.

On the twenty-seventh of September, 1852, it was resolved to build a
steeple on the church. This accomplished, a clock was placed in the steeple.

The Sunday-school was organized May 1st, 1853, with Mr. A. R. Horne (now
the Rev. Prof. A. R. Horne, Principal of the State Normal School at
Kutztown, Pa.,) as superintendent. Its sessions were held in the old
public school house, on Wall street; whence, after the lesson, the children
were taken to procession to the church, for the purpose of attending divine
service. During the summer of 1856, the Sunday-school room attached to the
rear end of the church was erected; and, on November 2d, the formal
dedication took place, the Rev. Prof. Heidenreich delivering the address.

At this time, also, the pews were placed in the church; the windows
altered from square to the gothic arch, and the whole interior of the
edifice frescoed.

In the spring of 1865, the Rev. C. F. Welden, having served the
congregation for fourteen years, resigned his office as pastor, and was at
once succeeded by the Rev. J. B. Rath.

On the twenty-second of June, 1868, the two congregations which had
hitherto used the church, resolved to effect a separation, and, on the
eleventh of July of the same year, the Lutherans, being the highest bidders
for the church property, bought the Reformed interest for $4,850. After
the Reformed relinquished the church, Lutheran services were held every
Sunday, in both the German and English languages. Some of the members,
desiring more frequent English preaching, organized an entirely English
congregation in the year 1872. On the thirty-first of December, 1872,

Rev. J. B. Rath’s pastorate ceased, he having accepted a call to become
pastor of Grace Church.

At an election held December -, 1872, the present pastor,
Rev. F. W. Weiskotten, was unanimously elected on Sunday,
February 16th, 1873, he was installed by the President of the Ministerium
of Pennsylvania, Rev. Dr. Greenwald, and the Rev. F. J. F. Schantz. The
members remaining after the separation, numbered about four hundred.

During the summer the church was newly frescoed, painted, carpeted, and
beautified generally. A legacy left by Mrs. Maria J. Krause was used in
purchasing a beautiful altar and lectern, which were placed in the church
as memorials of the departed.

The German and English languages continue to be used in the services, and
have equal rights. In the morning a German Sunday-school, and in the
afternoon an English Sunday-school, is held. The latter numbers four
hundred and fifteen members. Mr. Aaron Fatzinger is superintendent of the
main department, and Mrs. P. L. Gross of the infant department.

The congregation now number six hundred and seventeen members. The
following persons fill the respective offices of the congregation:


John Sandt

Philip Scheffler

George F. Stahr

Theodore Grolier


Josiah E. Sweitzer

Charles B. Opp

William Houser

Manasseh Seipel


George F. Herman

John Opp

Charles Harwi [?]


Daniel D. Ritter

Pastor, Rev. F. W. Weiskotten



The Reformed people associated themselves, as was usual in those. days,
with the Lutherans of Bethlehem, and they together built Salem Church, in
the year 1850, of which each congregation owned one half.

The founder of the Reformed congregation was Rev. J. C. Becker, D.D., and
be also was its first pastor. His election took place June 15th, 1851. The
full formal organization of the Reformed congregation took place May 18th,
1851, when its first officers were elected. Their names are:


John Berger

John Peter

Joseph Hess

Jacob Jacoby


Aaron George

John Hartzell

Henry Knecht

Charles H. Doll

Samuel Berger

George Reich

A number of the original members of the congregation are still living.

Rev. Dr. Becker having accepted the call of the congregation, preached
his introductory sermon July 20th, 1851. The first communion was held on
the ninth of November following, on which occasion thirty-five members
partook of the Holy Supper. In a few years the number had increased to
fifty-seven. At first, services were held only once in four weeks -an
arrangement, which was soon succeeded by services every two weeks. One of
the first objects of the two congregations was to provide a cemetery for
their dead. The necessary ground was accordingly purchased, and the first
lots in the Union Cemetery, were sold August 24th, 1851, at five dollars each.

The first chorister of the Reformed congregation, was Mr. Aaron George,
who, in leading the praises of the people, accompanied his voice with a violin.

Dr. Becker resigned the congregation in 1857, He fell asleep in Jesus on
the eighteenth day of August 1858. He is buried in the Union Cemetery at
Bethlehem, surrounded by many of those to whom in life be ministered in
holy things.

Dr. Becker was succeeded by Rev. A. J. G. Dubs of Allentown, who served
the congregation about one year. On the twelfth day of January, 1858,
Rev. D. Y. Heisler was elected pastor. He entered upon the duties of his
charge, April 1st, 1858. The Lord continued to prosper the Reformed
congregation, and the Record of 1861, shows the names of two hundred and
thirty confirmed members, and One hundred and seventy-five baptized members.

On the fourth of June, 1866, pastor Heisler resigned the congregation;
and at an election held August 18th, of the same year, Rev. Isaac K. Loos,
the present pastor, was chosen to succeed him. Rev. Mr. Loos entered upon
his duties here, December 16th, 1866.

On the twenty-second day of June, 1868, the Reformed and Lutheran
congregations, which had been up to that time worshiping together in Salem
Church, on High Street, resolved to separate.

An eligible lot was bought of Mr. G. W. Whitaker, having seventy-two feet
front on Centre street, between Broad and Market, by one hundred and eighty
feet in depth. Price $7,200. Early in April 1869, ground was broken for the
new church. The first stone in the foundation was laid by Mr. Moses Stuber,
stone-mason, on Monday May 3d, 1869. On Sunday, June 6th, following, the
corner-stone was laid. The whole church was, put under roof, but the
basement only finished for occupancy. On the twenty-third of January, 1870,
it was consecrated to the worship of God, the pastor preaching on the
occasion from Psalm cxxii. 1-6. In the evening the melodeon and the church
were dedicated with appropriate religious services, Rev. J. B. Rath,
preaching the sermon, and Rev. D. F. Brendle assisting. Thus far the
Reformed congregation had worshiped in the Salem Church. From this day
onward they worshiped in the basement of their own new building, Christ
Reformed Church.

The building committee consisted of Messrs.,
C. B. Daniel
J. J Hoffman
John K. Dech
John Lerch

On January 14th, 1872, the congregation resolved to finish the main
audience-room of the church. The work was entered upon with much zeal, and
the church before the following Christmas. On the twenty-second of December
1872, the consecration took place, pastor Loos preaching in German in the
morning, and Rev. Tuns. G. Apple, D.D. in the English language, both
morning and evening.

The Sunday morning services of the congregation are at present conducted
in the German language. The evening services are always English, and
conducted according to the Order of Worship (Liturgy) of the Reformed
Church in the United States.

The officers of Christ Reformed Church. at this time, are:

Pastor, Rev. Isaac K. Loos


J. J. Hoffman

B. Fenner

George V. Snyder

Albert F. Knight


M. L. Cortright

S. S. Algart

O. A. Richards

George D. Myers


John Lerch

J. J. Hoffman

Chas. B. Daniel

Charles Hartzell

Financial Secretary
Chas. F. Hartzell

George V. Snyder

The membership of Christ Reformed Church numbers four hundred and


First service held in 1854, at the house of Nicholas Miller, on Union street.

The church was built in 1856, on Union street, between New and Main, and
attended from Easton.

From 1860 to 1871 it was attended from Allentown. It was that year erected
into a pariah with Rev. John Joseph Albert, pastor, until December 1874,
when he was replaced by Rev. Joseph A. Winter, the present pastor. In 1875
a school was opened under the direction of the Sisters of St. Francis. A
pastoral residence was erected in 1875, in the rear of the church. Repairs
were made on and around the church in 1876 and 1877. Until 1860, both
Germans and Irish attended this church. They then divided and the Irish
built a church in South Bethlehem.


On April 25th, 1869, Rev. Robert L. Nivin, being rector of the Church of
the Nativity, South Bethlehem, a Sunday-school was started in the public
school house, corner of School alley and Wall street; Mr. U. S. Goodwin,
Superintendent. It was Rev. John Irving Forbes, however, having succeeded
Mr. Nivin its rector of the Nativity, who put into a practical form the
cherished wish of former rectors of the Nativity, to have a second parish
in the old town, distinct from the one in South Bethlehem. He began
services, on Sunday evenings in the hall of the Young Men’s Christian
Association, Main street. At the end of the year 1870, a church building
had been decided upon, Rev. Cortlandt Whitehead having succeeded Mr. Forbes
as rector of the Nativity.

Mr. Forbes died in June 1871, and it was agreed that the church should
be in part a memorial to him. Tuesday afternoon, August 29th, at five
o’clock, the corner-stone was laid by the rector.

Addresses were made by
the Rt. Rev. Edmund M. Schweinitz, Bishop of the Moravian Church,
by the Rev. Mr. Nivin
Rev. W. B. Eben

The church was completed by Christmas Day, 1871. On January 16th, 1872,
the church was formally opened for divine service, by the Bishop of the
newly formed Diocese of Central Pennsylvania, with the clergy of the Lehigh
and Schuylkill Convocation, by preaching and celebrating the Holy
Communion. Services were then held in the church every Thursday morning and
evening, by the rector and his assistant.

Early in spring of 1872, steps were taken towards an organization separate
from the Church of the Nativity. The following were named in the charter as
Wardens and Vestrymen:

Francis Weiss and Charles M. Dodson, Wardens

R. H. Sayre

G. R. Linderman

Timothy Ister

Geo. W. Whitaker

Weston Dodson

H. S. Goodwin

C. H. Kidder

W. M. Wendell

Jacob S. Moyer

Hiram Kreider

December 1st, Rev. Mr. Whitehead resigned, and Rev. Charles Morrison was
called. He accepted the call and entered upon his duties Sunday,
July 6th, 1873. He was succeeded by Rev. I. K. Mendenhall, October 15th, 1875.


This congregation had its, origin in the bosom of Salem Lutheran Church, of
this place. The small size of the Salem Church building and the want of an
English Lutheran Congregation in Bethlehem, were the principal causes of
the establishment of Grace Lutheran Church.

The advice of the Second District, Conference haying given in the
following resolution :

“Resolved, That we, as a Conference, unite in advising Salem Lutheran
Congregation, at Bethlehem, peaceably to divide itself now into two
distinct congregations, one German and one English, if it feels itself at
all able to bear the expense involved in such a course.”

At a congregational meeting of Salem Church, held April 16th, 1872, the
following resolution was offered by Mr. Joseph Wendell (German member),
seconded by Mr. M. H. Snyder, a d unanimously adopted by the meeting:

“Resolve, That the old Mother congregation recommends, to those members
who wish to go out into an English organization, to build an English
church, and that they (the members of Salem Church) will give them all the
help in their power.”

Upon this recommendation the English members at once proceeded to
energetic work. Individual members of the old church assisted the new
enterprise to the amount of about six hundred dollars.

The lots for the site of the new church, Broad street, below Centre, were
purchased from Mr. Thomas Frankenfield and Mrs. Caroline Opp. Under the
supervision of the building committee,

J. B. Zimmele

John Walp

F. E. Huger

George Annihilate

G. J. Desh

The ground was broken for the foundation, on July 16th, 1872.
The corner-stone was laid with appropriate services on Sunday, August 5th, 1872.

On the thirty-first of October, 1872, it was formally organized, under
the name and title of “Grace Evangelical Lutheran Church of Bethlehem,” by
enrolling eighty-eight persons as members, adopting a constitution, and
electing the following as its first officers Rev. J. B, Rath, pastor; M. H.
Snyder, F. Sick urn, and J. B. Zimmele, elders; Wm. H. Sot, Joy. A. Weaver,
Frank Wind, and Samuel Nickum, deacons; John Walp, George Annihilate, Geo.
J. Desh, trustees; Charles H. Schwartz, organist.

On Sunday, January 5th, 1873, the basement-room of the church was
consecrated, and the pastor and church council installed, Rev. C. F. Welden
and Rev. G. F. Miller preached on the occasion. The Sunday-school was also
opened on the same day lit this rocin the congregation worshiped for one
year, during which time the main audience-room was finished. The
dimensions of the building are 45 x 80 feet; and the main audience-room
will seat over five hundred persons. This routu was entered and consecrated
to divine service on Sunday, January 4th, 1874, Rev. E. Greenwald,
President of the Synod, preached the consecration sermon.
The cost of the church property was about $23,000, The Rev. J. B. Rath, who
was born and reared in the vicinity of Bethlehem, has thus far (1877) been
the only pastor of this congregation. Present membership over two hundred.
It is the only English Lutheran Church in Northampton county, outside of Easton.



This church was organized by a Committee of the Presbytery of Lehigh, on
Sabbath, November 14th, 1875, in the parlor of the Young Men’s Christian
Association, on Main street. The following persons, twenty-one in number,
formed the original membership, namely:

Gen. Robert S. Brown

A. Brown, M. D.

Mrs. Amanda E. Brown

Miss Mary E. Brown

Miss Flora S. Brown

Mrs. Rebecca Engle

Mrs. Sarah L. White

Mrs. Marietta Cyphers

Enoch Phillips

Horatio D. Yeager

Mrs. Mary C. Yeager

B. Franklin Pierce

Mrs. Julia Pierce

John R. Bennett

Mrs. Mary E. Bennett

Mrs. Thankful Holcombe

Michael Bitler

Mrs. Sarah A. Bitler

Edward T. Bitler

William C. Taylor

Mrs. Abby T. Taylor

The following persons were the first elders elected by the church:

Robert S. Brown

C. Franklin Pierce

William C. Taylor

Michael Bitler

The first Board of Trustees was constituted as follows

Horatio D. Yeager
M. Bitter
John R. Bennett

From November 14th, 1875, until February 13th, 1876, the church held all
its services in the parlors of the parsonage, on the corner of Broad and
High streets. Different ministers and candidates supplied the pulpit.
Rev. Cornelius Earle, Pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of
Catasauqua, who had always encouraged and greatly helped the movement from
the beginning, came down to Bethlehem frequently and preached during the
week. On Monday evening, February 14th, 1876, preaching service was held in
the church on Union street, above Main. This edifice had been formerly
occupied by the United Brethren, whose organization had been disbanded. A
lease was affected by the Presbyterians, who still occupy it at the date of
this writing. At a meeting of the church and congregation, held on the
evening of March 8th, 1876, the Rev. Alexander D. Moore, of Northumberland,
Pa., was called to be the pastor of the church. The call was accepted and
Mr. Moore began his labors on Sabbath, April 2d, 1876, On the thirtieth day
of April, following, he was regularly installed as pastor of the church by
the Presbytery of Lehigh. At the present time the membership is
increasing, the congregations are large, the Sabbath-school is in a
flourishing condition, and the prospects for future success are most


As early as January 5th, 1849, the Moravians had opened at Bethlehem, a
school for girls, which, however, was not open to any except the children
of their own community. The events of the Revolutionary War, however, and
particularly of the period from the commencement of 1777 till 1783,
causing, as they did, the chief personages of America, among whom were
Hancock and Adams, and WASHINGTON himself to become visitors at Bethlehem,
brought the, retiring Moravians prominently into notice, and caused the
excellence or their educational system to be understood and appreciated in
the highest quarters; and this knowledge was auspicious for a people who
had long been both misunderstood and misrepresented. And thus it came to
pass that the Moravians, who were recognized its conscientious educators of
youth in their own commonwealth, were soon sought, to do service in that
capacity to a new and wider sphere.

Having been repeatedly urged to engage, in the cause of education outside
of their own church, the General Synod of 1782, sanctioned the assumption
of such a responsibility on the part of the American Executive Board,
entrusting the development of the project to Bishop John de Watteville, who
was in the United States in the interval between 1784 and 1787.

Accordingly, on the second of October, 1785, the then existing school for
girls, at Bethlehem, having been reorganized and remodeled, was opened in
the interest of the American public as a Boarding School for Girls, under
the auspices of the Moravian Church. Such was the origin of this school
which has now been in successful operation for ninety-one years, and has,
in that time, enrolled upon its register the names of more than SIX
THOUSAND pupils. Seventeen principals have thus for administered its
affairs, and they came in the following order.

Rev. John Andrew Huebrier-1785-90. Mr. Huebner, a graduate of the
Moravian Theological Seminary, at Barby, Saxony, came to this country in
the spring of 1780, and was settled in the ministry at Bethlehem. On the
twelfth of October 1785, he assumed the duties of Principal of the newly
organized school in connection with those of his pastorate. Its beginnings
were small. Five of the inmates of the former institution, and fifteen day
scholars, in charge of three fortresses, constituted the entire household,
and this was accommodated in a suite of apartments in one of those old-time
buildings that stand near the Moravian Church, and date back to the year 1742.

Miss Elizabeth Bedell, a daughter of Mr. Israel Bedell, of Staten Island,
was the first pupil, not of Moravian parentage. She was admitted in
March 1786. In May, 1787, Miss Aurelia Blakely, of Baltimore, followed, and
at the close of that year the number of boarders reached seventeen:
The rates at which pupils were charged in the year 1788, were the
£ s. d.
“For Board, Washing, and Tuition, the latter including the
ordinary branches of an English education and instruction
in the German language, per Quarter, 5 – –
For Tambour-work and Drawing, per Quarter, – 17 6
For lessens on the Piano Forte or Guitar, per Quarter, – 17 6
For the use of Light, Fuel, and School-books, per Quarter, – 15 –

The age, of admission at this time was from eight to fifteen years.
Seventy pupils were admitted into the school during Mr., Huebner’s
administration, which terminated in January 1790.

Rev. Jacob Van Vleck-1790-1800. Mr. Van Vleck was a native of New York,
and his parents members of the church which the Moravians organized in that
city, in 1748. After having punned a collegiate course of instruction in
the school which was opened at Nazareth Hall, subsequent to the dissolution
of the Economy, he, in 1771, went abroad to prepare for the ministry, at
the Theological Seminary, at Barby. Returning to his native Country after a
seven years absence, Mr. Van Vleck was ordained, and settled at Bethlehem
in the capacity of assistant pastor. On being called to the head of the
school in January 1790, he issued the following circular:

Conditions of the Boarding-school in Bethlehem for the Education
of Young Minds.

Children are admitted between the ages of eight and twelve years, and may
remain at school, if parents desire, to the age of sixteen, unless their
deportment should be such as not to admit of their longer continuance.
Every possible attention will be paid to the health and morals of the
children. On admittance one guinea entrance-money is to be paid.

The price of boarding and common schooling is £20, Pennsylvania currency,
per year, payment to be, made at entrance, quarterly in advance, and so continued.

Under common schooling are comprised; Reading, Writing, Grammar, History,
Geography, Arithmetic, plain Sewing and Knitting.

For instruction in Music, if desired, two guineas per year is charged.

For instruction in fine Needlework, including Drawing, also two guineas per year.

Clothing, medicine, books, paper, and other contingent expenses, are a
separate charge, and are to be settled quarterly. In bedding, they may be
found for twenty shillings per year. The dress is to be decent, avoiding
excess and vanity.

It is desired that such as are applied for, should have had the measles
and small-pox.

Application, informing him of the age and character of the child, to be
made writing to the


P. S.-As many parents and guardians have signified their desire that their
children might also be taught the French language, we have now the pleasure
to inform them that a lady, well versed in this language, has arrived from
Europe, with the intention to give lessons in the same. As the maintenance,
of said lady, m well as the expenses of voyage and journey from Europe,
will fall upon the school, we trust it will not be deemed unreasonable,
that an extra charge of live Spanish dollars per annual, should be made!
instruction in French.


So rapid was the increase of pupils at this time, that more ample
accommodations became necessary, and it was, therefore, resolved to erect a
commodious building for the Institution on a plot of ground immediately in
rear of the old Economy houses. It was completed in 1790, and occupied,
April 12th, 1791 The number of scholars at that time was eighty-eight, and
the number of tutoresses, ten.1

On the thirteenth of June 1797, Mr. Van Vleck announced that, having
examined the list of candidates for admission, and finding the number
greater than be bad prospect of being able to accommodate, he should drop
the entering of names for a time, and he requested that no more
applications be made before the expiration of eighteen months from that date.

Three hundred and sixty-five pupils were admitted into the Institution
during this prosperous administration. In June 1796, Mrs. Thomas Lee, of
Park Cats, near Dumfiries, Virginia, niece to President Washington, on his
recommendation, applied for the admission of her daughter. On the register
of this period are found recorded the well-known names of

Rosevelt, and others.

In the month of December, A. D. 1800, Mr. Van Vleck retired from the head
of the school, and was succeeded by Rev. Andrew Berhade -1800-13, Mr. Benade
was educated for the ministry at, Barby, came to America in 1795, and first
served as tutor at Nazareth Hall.

On the retirement of Mr. Van Vleck, he was called to the head of the
Seminary, and remained in that position for more, than twelve years, during
which time four hundred and thirty-two pupils entered the Institution. He
retired from the charge of the school in January, 1813. Forty-six years
later (October 1859), he died, in Bethlehem, at Life, age of ninety-one years.

Following Mr., Benade, as Principal, came Rev. Lewis Ruebuer -1813-who
filled, the station less than a year, and died December 6th, 1813.

Rev. John G. Cunow-1813-45. During his administration the Institution was
removed into a four-story building, on its present site. This was the
house of the Single Brethren, which had twice been occupied as a hospital
in the Revolution, It was purchased by the trustees of the school, and
after being repaired and renovated, was occupied by the pupils,
November 10th, 1815.

Many were the conveniences, afforded to the inmtates by the ample
accommodations of their new home; among the much-needed comforts was an
infirmary, which was given in charge of a resident matron.

Upwards of six acres of land, situate, in the rear of the building, being
included in the purchased property, a portion of the plot was laid out as a
park, and planted with trees, and shrubs. This was the beginning of the
pleasure grounds.”

A few weeks after the important event in the history of the Institution
just recorded, Mr. Cunow closed his career as Principal. In 1821 he
returned to Europe.

Right Rev. Charles G. Reichel-1815-16; since 1811, President of the
Executive Board of the Province North, and senior Bishop at Bethlehem, was
Principal of the school in the interval between November 1815, and February 1816.

Rev. Henry Steinhauer-1816-18. Mr. Steinhauer was born at Haverford West,
South Wales, in February 1782, and has educated for the ministry at the
Barby Theological Seminary. He was residing in England, when, in the summer
of 1815, he was called to the head of the Institution.

On his arrival at Bethlehem, in February, 1816, Mr. Steinhauer at once
entered upon the duties of his new position. For this he was eminently
fitted, and in it he labored with much acceptance and with credit to the
Institution over which he presided.

Mr. Steinhauer died in the prime of manhood, in July 1818. He was
succeeded by Rev. Charles. F. Seidel, who was, in turn, succeeded by
Rev. John F. Frueauff-1819-1821 -who was appointed to the head of the
Institution in January, 1819. He died at Bethlehem in August 1828.

Rev. Lewis David de Schweinitz-1821-22. Mr. de Schweinitz, a great-
grandson of Count Zinzendorf, in the maternal line of descent, was born in
Bethlehem, and was educated for the ministry at the Moravian Theological
Seminary, at Nisky, Prussia. His first appointment in the service of his
church was, in the American Province South. Thence he was called to
Bethlehem, in 1821.

Forty-one pupils were admitted into the Institution during his incumbency
which covered the interval between December, 1821, and August 1822. In the
last-named month he, was appointed Financial Agent of the Unity, Executive
Board for the Province North, At the same time he was a member of the
Provincial Executive Board and senior pastor of the Bethlehem congregation.
lie died fit February, 1834.

Mr. de Schweinitz was widely known and highly esteemed outside of his own
church, both in this country and abroad, he was a member of the Academy of
Natural Sciences, and of the American Philosophical Society, and a
corresponding member of several leading scientific associations on the

Rev. Charles F. Seidel -1822-36-a native of Saxony and a graduate of the
Nisky Theological Seminary, came to this country 1806, and received his
first appointment in the Province South. Between 1809 and 1817, he was
Principal of Nazareth Hall.

In August, 1822, Mr. Seidel was called to the head of the Institution of
which we write, administering its affairs with eminent ability for
fourteen eventful years, in which period he admitted six hundred and
forty-two pupils.

He retired from the head of the Seminary in 1836, and was succeeded by
Rev. John G. Kummer -1836-43. Mr. Kummer was born on the Island of St.
Thomas; was educated at Nazareth Hall, and entered life service of the,
church in the capacity of a tutor at that, school in 1815. From 1826 to {?} as
Principal of Linden Hall. In the last-named year he was settled at Nazareth.

He entered upon the duties of Principal, in March of 1836, and labored in
its interests for seven years.

The 21st of May 1836, was appropriately observed as the fiftieth
anniversary of the day on which the first pupil was admitted into the

Three hundred and seventy-five pupils entered the Seminary during this

On retiring from its head, Mr. Kummer was settled place he died in
August, of 1846.

In the interval between October of 1843, and June of 1844, Rev. John G.
Herman, senior pastor of the Bethlehem congregation, was acting Principal.
He died in July of 1854, in the State, of Missouri, while an official
visitation to the Cherokee Mission in the Indian Territory.

Rev. Henry A. Shultz, 1844-1847-Mr. Shultz was born at Hope, a mission
station in Dutch Guiana, S. A. and was educated at the Theological Seminary
at Nazareth. Four hundred and fifteen pupils were admitted into the
Seminary during his administration.

Rev. Herman J. Titze, 1847-1849 -Mr. Titze entered on the duties of
Principal, October 1847. Ninety-four pupils were admitted during his term
of office.

The Rev. Sylvester Wolle, 1849-1861 -Mr. Wolfe was born in 1816, near
Nazareth, and was educated at the Theological Seminary at that place. He
was settled in the ministry at Gnadenhuetten, Ohio. From there he was
called to the head of the Seminary in July of 1849. Its affairs he
administered for twelve years with success.

Under his administration the number of pupils increased from year to year
and at the close of the annual term in June of 1853, reached one hundred
and fifty-seven.

It becoming evident that ampler accommodations than could be furnished
in the “old house” were requisite to meet the demands of a steadily growing
patronage, Mr. Wolle, as early as 1852, projected the erection of a new
building, vacated the residence occupied by himself and his predecessor
since 1834, and discontinued admitting day-scholars.

1. When in the spring of 1857, this building was demolished, there was
found well preserved in the corner-stone, which had been laid in May, 1790 a
memorial document, containing among other records the following that bears
upon this sketch:

In the Name of our LORD JESUS CHRIST
who willeth that children should come to him,
and be brought up in the nurture add admonition
of Him,
with the approbation of the Reverend the
Directors of this and all other Brethrens Congregations
in Pennsylvania and adjacent States
Reverend the Directors of the Unitas Fratrum,
and with the blessing and prayers of the whole congregation
of this place;
(in order to enlarge the Girls Boarding School
instituted in this place in the year 1765
and which within 5 years increased so much
that the present number of pupils amount to 69.)
In full reliance and confidence that this
undertaking will be graciously owned and prospered
by our Lord Jesus Christ,
the great Friend of our Children,
by His and our dear Father in Heaven
and by the Holy spirit,
The Foundation Stone of this Building
is laid,
Bethlehem 2d day of May, in the year
of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and ninety.


In midsummer of 1854, the work of erecting the present east wing of the
Seminary buildings, was auspiciously begun. This addition was occupied ill
the mouth of November. It is a handsome four-story brick dwelling,
admirably arranged as to its interior, for its intended use, heated by
furnaces and conveniently supplied with gas and water.

The accommodations afforded by the new addition however, proved
inadequate, and in the spring of 1859, ground was broken in view of
erecting at the west end of the “old house,” a wing in all respects similar
to the one completed in 1854. This wing includes a well-appointed
infirmary, has a swimming-bath in the basement, and is provided with all
modern conveniences.

In the early spring of 1857, Mr. Wolle, having been elected a delegate to
the twenty-seventh General Synod of his church which convened at Herrnhut
in June of that year, sailed for Europe. He was abroad seven months; his
brother, the Rev. Francis Wolle, meanwhile administering the affairs of the

Having been chosen a member of the Executive Board of the Province North,
in the spring of 1861, Mr. Wolle severed his connection with the
Institution, whose interests he had so materially advanced and into which
he had admitted upwards of one thousand pupils. The highest number at one
time under his care was two hundred. He died at Bethlehem in August of 1871
Rev. Francis Wolle, 1861, the present well-known Principal of the Moravian
Seminary for Young Ladies at Bethlehem, was born near Nazareth in 1817,
educated at Bethlehem, and first served his church in the capacity of a
tutor at Nazareth Hall, from 1839-1846. In 1856, be was appointed Vice
Principal of the Institution at whose head he has now stood for sixteen years.

In that interval of time he has been signally prospered in his labors,
having admitted nearly three thousand pupils.

The largest number registered for any one academic year in the annals of
the school, was for the year ending with June of 1866, and reaches three hundred
and eighteen.

In December of 1863, the Rev. Francis Holland (the present Principal, of
the Hope Academy for Young Ladies) was appointed Vice-Principal, and in
1866, he was succeeded in that office by Mr. Benjamin Van Kirk, the present

The fiftieth anniversary of the occupation of the “old house” in 1815,
was festively observed on the tenth of November, 1865.

The chapel erected by the fifteenth Principal in 1848, being found too
small to accommodate the numerous friends who desired to be present at the
semi-annual entertainments, and to seat the members of the household on
special religious occasions, ground was broken in the autumn of 1867, for
the erection of a more commodious structure. In July of 1868, the building
was finished, and on the ninth of the month the chapel on the upper floor
was dedicated to the worship of God. The new wing which joins the old
chapel on the south, has three stories, and its first floor is occupied as
a refectory. An organ was erected in the Chapel in the summer of 1869.

In the summer of 1873, Mr. Wolle was constrained to add a fourth wing to
the buildings thus far erected and occupied. It joins the chapel on the
south, has four stories, containing a gymnasium, a large lecture-room, and
a suite of dwelling-rooms and dormitories. At the same time he built a
large and well-appointed steam laundry. The present number of pupils at the
Institution is one hundred and eighty.

This school is one of five institutions of higher learning in the United,
States, which are the property of tile American Moravian Church, and are
conducted for the benefit of that Church and its Christian enterprises,
under tile supervision of the Executive Boards of its Provinces, North and
South. Four of those schools have been in successful operation for
three-quarters of a century.1

The Present Trustees of the Bethlehem Seminary are:
Rev. Robert, de Schweinitz

Rev. Lewis F. Kampmann

Rev. Francis R. Holland


AFTER the establishment of the Moravians at Bethlehem, in 1741, the
Society purchased, from time to time, lands contiguous to their settlement,
not only on the north but also on the south side of the Lehigh, until they
became possessed of four large and valuable farms, in Lower Saucon and
Salisbury townships, opposite and above the town.

Without following the history of these through the earlier years, it is
sufficient, as regards their connection with the annals of South Bethlehem,
that in the year 1847, these four farms, known as
the “Luckeubach Farm,”
the “Jacobi Farm,”
the “Fuehrer Farm,”
the ” Hoffert Farm,” were sold by the Moravian Society to Charles A.
Luckenbach, of Bethlehem (excepting, however, three small parcels,
comprising, in the aggregate, less than six acres, which had previously
been sold to Daniel Desh and Francis H. Oppelt).

Portions of these tracts were variously disposed of by Mr. Luckenbach,
which dispositions need not be noticed until we come down to the summer of
1852, when he laid out, upon his land, a town-plot, which he named
AUGUSTA, and which was in reality the first commencement of the present
borough of South Bethlehem. The location of Augusta may now be described
as extending north and south, from the track of the North Pennsylvania
Railroad to the Lehigh River, and east and west from Northampton to Poplar
street. The first building lot-40 x 176 feet-was purchased by Levin C.
Peysert, of Bethlehem, for two hundred dollars. The first dwellings,
erected in the town of Augusta, were three large frame houses, commenced by
Borhek & Knauss, October 31st, 1853. Many other town lots were sold by Mr.
Luckenbach, as also two parcels, each of four acres, respectively, to
Samuel Wetherill, and to the Pennsylvania and Lehigh Zinc Company, and
thirty-five acres to Hon. Asa Packer, for the use of the Lehigh Valley
Railroad. The remainder of the ” Luckenbach Farm ” -a little less than one
hundred acres-he sold to Charles W. and Ambrose Rauch, of Bethlehem.

The “Jacobi Farm,” above and adjoining the “Luckenbach,” containing one
hundred and three and a half acres, had come into the possession of
Charles Brodhead, of Bethlehem, who, by agreement with the Messrs. Rauch,
added the whole2 of his (Jacobi) tract, and theirs-balance of the
Luckeubach-in all about two hundred and one acres-to the town-plot of
Augusta, and then re-christened the town WETHERILL, in honor of John P.
Wetherill of Philadelphia. This was done in the year 1854. The name of
Wetherill, however, was not of long continuance; it was succeeded by the
designation of BETHLEHEM SOUTH, and this in turn was abandoned, on the
organization of the borough, under the very sensible name which it still
bears. The growth and progress of the town was very rapid, and its
commencement dates from the opening of the railroad lines; indeed, it may
be said to have been wholly the result of their opening; but without them,
the gigantic manufactories of South Bethlehem would probably never have
been built.


The company which built and controls this great railway, was first
incorporated, by Act of Assembly, April 21st, 1846, as “The Delaware,
Lehigh, Schuylkill and Susquehanna Railroad Company,” which was changed to
the present title of the company, by a supplemental Act passed
January 7th, 1853.

The original main lines-Mauch Chunk to South Easton, forty-six miles-was
located in 1851. The work of construction was commenced November 27th, of
the same year and the road was so far completed in the summer of 1855, that
on the eleventh of June, trains commenced running between South Easton and
Allentown, though the heavy rock-cut, just below the former place, had not
then been completed, nor was the road delivered by the contractor (Hon. Asa
Packer), to the company, until the twenty-fourth of the following
September. From that time, through trains ran regularly, and the first
railway station, of South Bethlehem, was a brick dwelling house which had
been built on the Luckenbach farm in 1849.

When one sees and realizes the almost boundless extent of the anthracite
coal transportation performed by this road, and adds thereto the immense
passenger traffic, and compares these with the old methods and amounts; of
freighting and travel, he is lost in amazement. It is, indeed, an almost
immeasurable change which has been effected, since Charles Miner shipped
his first cargo of twenty-four tons of coal down the Lehigh, or since
George Klein established his weekly stage-wagon line between Bethlehem and

1. The Seminary for Young Ladies at Bethlehem-Nazareth Hall, a Boarding
School for Boys, at Nazareth, Northampton county, Pa., founded in
1755,-Linden Hall, a Boarding School for Young Ladles, at Litiz, Lancaster
county, Pa., founded in 1794-and the Hope Academy for Young Ladles, at
Hope, Bartholomew county, Ind., founded in 1866, are under the supervision
of the Executive Board of the Province North. The Academy for Young Ladies
at Salem, Forsyth county, N. C., founded in 1802, is controlled by the
Board of the Province South.

2. Excepting seven acres, which he donated to the Lehigh University.