AFTER the establishment of the Moravians at Bethlehem, in 1741, the Society purchased, from time to time, lands contiguous to their settlement, not only on the north but also on the south side of the Lehigh, until they became possessed of four large and valuable farms, in Lower Saucon and Salisbury townships, opposite and above the town. Without following the history of these through the earlier years, it is sufficient, as regards their connection with the annals of South Bethlehem, that in the year 1847, these four farms, known as the "Luckenbach Farm," the "Jacobi Farm," the "Fuehrer Farm," the " Hoffert Farm," were sold by the Moravian Society to Charles A. Luckenbach, of Bethlehem (excepting, however, three small parcels, comprising, in the aggregate, less than six acres, which had previously been sold to Daniel Desh and Francis H. Oppelt). Portions of these tracts were variously disposed of by Mr. Luckenbach, which dispositions need not be noticed until we come down to the summer of 1852, when he laid out, upon his land, a town-plot, which he named AUGUSTA, and which was in reality the first commencement of the present borough of South Bethlehem. The location of Augusta may now be described as extending north and south, from the track of the North Pennsylvania Railroad to the Lehigh River, and east and west from Northampton to Poplar street. The first building lot-40 x 176 feet-was purchased by Levin C. Peysert, of Bethlehem, for two hundred dollars. The first dwellings, erected in the town of Augusta, were three large frame houses, commenced by Borhek & Knauss, October 31st, 1853. Many other town lots were sold by Mr. Luckenbach, as also two parcels, each of four acres, respectively, to Samuel Wetherill, and to the Pennsylvania and Lehigh Zinc Company, and thirty-five acres to Hon. Asa Packer, for the use of the Lehigh Valley Railroad. The remainder of the " Luckenbach Farm " -a little less than one hundred acres-he sold to Charles W. and Ambrose Rauch, of Bethlehem. The "Jacobi Farm," above and adjoining the "Luckenbach," containing one hundred and three and a half acres, had come into the possession of Charles Brodhead, of Bethlehem, who, by agreement with the Messrs. Rauch, added the whole2 of his (Jacobi) tract, and theirs-balance of the Luckeubach-in all about two hundred and one acres-to the town-plot of Augusta, and then re-christened the town WETHERILL, in honor of John P. Wetherill of Philadelphia. This was done in the year 1854. The name of Wetherill, however, was not of long continuance; it was succeeded by the designation of BETHLEHEM SOUTH, and this in turn was abandoned, on the organization of the borough, under the very sensible name which it still bears. The growth and progress of the town was very rapid, and its commencement dates from the opening of the railroad lines; indeed, it may be said to have been wholly the result of their opening; but without them, the gigantic manufactories of South Bethlehem would probably never have been built. THE LEHIGH VALLEY RAILROAD. The company which built and controls this great railway, was first incorporated, by Act of Assembly, April 21st, 1846, as "The Delaware, Lehigh, Schuylkill and Susquehanna Railroad Company," which was changed to the present title of the company, by a supplemental Act passed January 7th, 1853. The original main lines-Mauch Chunk to South Easton, forty-six miles-was located in 1851. The work of construction was commenced November 27th, of the same year and the road was so far completed in the summer of 1855, that on the eleventh of June, trains commenced running between South Easton and Allentown, though the heavy rock-cut, just below the former place, had not then been completed, nor was the road delivered by the contractor (Hon. Asa Packer), to the company, until the twenty-fourth of the following September. From that time, through trains ran regularly, and the first railway station, of South Bethlehem, was a brick dwelling house which had been built on the Luckenbach farm in 1849. When one sees and realizes the almost boundless extent of the anthracite coal transportation performed by this road, and adds thereto the immense passenger traffic, and compares these with the old methods and amounts; of freighting and travel, he is lost in amazement. It is, indeed, an almost immeasurable change which has been effected, since Charles Miner shipped his first cargo of twenty-four tons of coal down the Lehigh, or since George Klein established his weekly stage-wagon line between Bethlehem and Philadelphia. __________________________________________________________________________ 1. The Seminary for Young Ladies at Bethlehem-Nazareth Hall, a Boarding School for Boys, at Nazareth, Northampton county, Pa., founded in 1755,-Linden Hall, a Boarding School for Young Ladles, at Litiz, Lancaster county, Pa., founded in 1794-and the Hope Academy for Young Ladles, at Hope, Bartholomew county, Ind., founded in 1866, are under the supervision of the Executive Board of the Province North. The Academy for Young Ladies at Salem, Forsyth county, N. C., founded in 1802, is controlled by the Board of the Province South. 2. Excepting seven acres, which he donated to the Lehigh University. 211 THE NORTH PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD. The company, organized for construction of this road, was incorporated by Act of Assembly, April 8th, 1852, as "The Philadelphia, Easton and Water-Gap Railroad Company," but its title was changed to the present one on the third of October 1853. Work was commenced on the sixteenth of June of that year, and the first passenger train was, on the first of January 1857, run through from the city to the junction with the Lehigh Valley Road at Freemansburg. On the eighth of July, same year, the trains were taken off the Freemansburg Branch, and ran over the main line to South Bethlehem, as the terminus. At the junction with the Lehigh Valley Road, above the old bridge, was the station-house, which was built in 1859, and held in common by the two roads, for some years, but was superseded by the present Union Depot, erected jointly by the two companies, and first occupied by them November 18th, 1867. It contains the necessary public rooms for the use of the roads, and separate, offices for each. Its cost was nearly $24,000, and it stands nearly on the site of the old historic "Crown Inn", so often mentioned in Moravian annals-the precise spot where the old tavern stood, being now covered by the south platform of the depot; and the track running directly over the well, from which the ancient landlord-Lischer-drew water to slake the fever-thirst of the dying Captain Wetterhold. When it was found that the old "Crown" tavern must be removed, to make way for the passage of the locomotive, it was offered for sale as it stood, and brought the sum of thirty dollars. In 1857, it was removed by D. I. Yerkes, Esq., to the corner of Second and New streets, where, from its material, was partially erected the Continental Hotel; in the building of which, it was the aim of Esquire Yerkes to preserve, as far as possible, its original style of architecture. It would not have been amiss to have preserved the name as well as style, and instead of Continental, called it Crown, for there surely need no longer be any dread of royalty in the Valley of the Lehigh. The engine-house of the North Pennsylvania Road was built at South Bethlehem, in 1857, but was, after a time, found to be inadequate to the requirements of the unforeseen increase of business, and so, in 1870, the company built a new turn-table, and a "round-house," having fifteen engine Stalls. The grading necessary for this structure took away the moderate rise of ground on which stood the, apple trees, that of old pertained to the domain of the "Crown"; the orchard which produced the "cider royal," for which Lischer made charge in his bill against that Sergeant McGuire, who had been brought, wounded and helpless to the Inn, from the scene of the Stenton massacre. The freight station, a brick building, with slated roof, 100 x 30 feet, with an annexed shed, 70 x 25 feet, was built in 1870, at a cost to the company of $8,000. The foundry and machine-shop below the company's offices of the Lehigh Valley Railroad, were established by Abbott & Cortright, in the year 1857, and were successfully carried on by them for years. These shops are still in operation, in the original buildings, under the superintendence of Mr. M. E. Abbott, son of one of the original founders. INCORPORATION OF THE BOROUGH. South Bethlehem was erected a borough by decree, of the Court of Quarter Session of Northampton county, at August term, in 1865. The first election was held at the Continental Hotel. Judge of Election (appointed by the court), David I. Yerkes, Esq. Inspectors John Trone Abraham Harris The first officers of the borough were: Burgess, James McMahon Members of Council- Louis F. Beckel David I. Yerkes E. P. Wilbur James McCoy James Purcell, Treasurer, Theophilis Horlacher, Town Clerk, William H. Bush, High Constable, John Kilkelly The corporate limits of the borough were defined as follows: "Beginning at a point on the bank of the river Lehigh, opposite a small island , in the line of Northampton and Lehigh counties; thence following down the several courses of said river 427-45 perches to an oak opposite the head of Ysselstein's Island; thence southeasterly thirty perches to a stone in the Hellertown road; thence along the leads of Asa Packer, westerly and south westerly three hundred and thirty-three perches to the northwest corner of said Asa Packer's land; thence westerly 127-4 perches to the line of Lehigh county; and thence northeasterly one hundred and thirty perches along said line to the place of beginning." The first meeting of the Council was held at the Lehigh Valley House, corner of Second and Northampton Streets, on the nineteenth of September 1865. A line of substantial improvement, to the town (among which were the paving and curbing of the streets), was determined on, and vigorously carried into effect. The population of the borough at the time of its, incorporation is not precisely known. After the organization, the increase was rapid, and the, census return of 1870, shows, that at that time, the number of inhabitants of South Bethlehem was 3,556. Some of the more enthusiastic of it, residents claim that, the borough contains a present population of 8,000, but this figure is evidently far in excess of the action, number. BETHLEHEM SOUTH GAS AND WATER COMPANY. The Bethlehem South Gas and Water Company was organized in June 1867, with a paid up capital of $25,000, under a charter granted by the Legislature of Pennsylvania, A. D. 1864. The first Board of Directors was composed of the following gentlemen, who were also named in the charter as corporators E. P. Wilbur, President Robert H. Sayre William H. Sayre John Smylie, Jr. James McMahon H. Stanley Goodwin, Secretary and Treasurer B. E. Lehman, Superintendent Subsequently, Mr. B. C. Webster was elected to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Mr. McMahon, but, with this exception, there has been no change, made in any of the officers of the company to the present time (1877). The erection of the Gas-Works was commenced in August, 1867, under the immediate charge of Mr. B. E, Lehman, Superintendent, and during the fall of that year, about three miles of main pipes were laid through the principal streets of the borough, and up to Fountain Hill. The works were completed in December of that year, and the first gas was made on December 24th, 1867. In 1875, like works were enlarged by the erection of an additional gas-holder of a capacity of 25,000 feet, as the consumption exceeded the capacity of the old holder. The Water-Works of this company were not built until 1875, when a steam-pump was put up at the Bethlehem Iron Company's Works, from which place the pipes were laid through all the principal streets of the borough, supplying thirty-three, fire-plugs, two railroad water-stations, and a large number of private consumers. At the present time, the water is pumped directly into the mains without any reservoir, the requisite amount of pressure being kept up by an attachment from the accumulator to the starting valve of the steam-pump. The works have now been in operation eighteen months, and have proved satisfactory in every respect. The present officer of the company are: E. I. Wilbur, President H S. Goodwin, Secretary and Treasurer B. E. Lehman, Superintendent PROTECTION FIRE COMPANY. Under the above title, a company has been organized in the borough, having for its object the extinguishment of fires and the protection of property and life: George C, Boyer, President Thomas Eynon, Chief Engineer K Scott, Foreman POST OFFICE. The South Bethlehem Post Office dates from the year following the erection of the borough; it having been established in June, 1866. The first Postmaster was John Seem. Of the manufacturing enterprises of South Bethlehem, there are some which have grown to vast proportions, Among the principal of these is THE LEHIGH ZINC COMPANY. About the year 1830, the attention and curiosity of the farmers of the vicinity, was excited by the discovery of a strange mineral deposit upon the lands of Jacob Ueberroth, in Saucon Valley. The character of this deposit was unknown and unsuspected, but thinking it possible that it might prove to be as valuable as the ordinary iron-ore, the proprietor tool a wagon load of the strange substance to the "Mary Ann Furnace," in Berks county, to be smelted, The attempt was a failure, and the subject was for the time dropped. No further attention was paid to it until the year 1845, when, by chance, the deposit, came to the notice of Mr. William Theodore Roepper, who, after examination, pronounced it to be "calamine," the hydro-silicate of zinc. This discovery led to a development, of the apparently inexhaustible mines which have now fed the Zinc Works at South Bethlehem, for almost a quarter of a century. Under the superintendence of Mr. Samuel Wetherill, works for the production of zinc-oxide, in furnaces, and by a process of his own invention, were erected, in 1853, on land which he had purchased of A. Luckenbach within the limits of the town plot of Augusta. These works were completed at a cost of $85,000, and on the thirteenth of October, 1853, the first zinc-white ever made in America was produced in these works, by the combined processes of Wetherill, and of Richard Jones, Esq. 212 At the commencement, the works were run by all unincorporated association, which, however, was, on the second of May, 1855, incorporated by Act of Legislature, as "The Pennsylvania and Lehigh Zinc Company," with a capital $1,000,000; the object of which organization, as set forth in the Act of incorporation, was the purpose of mining zinc-ore in the counties of Lehigh and Northampton-of manufacturing; zinc paint, metallic and other articles, from said ore, and of vending the same." The originators of the company were residents of New York and Thomas Andrews, of that city was the first president. Mr. Wetherill continued in the superintendence of the works from the commencement of operation until September 1857, when he was succeeded in that office by Joseph Whareton. During the administration of Mr. Wetherill (a little less than four years), 4,728 tons of zinc-white had been produced, and many experiments had been made looking towards the production of metallic zinc, but these had been only partially successful. On the sixteenth of February, 1860, the corporate, title of the company was changed, by Act of Legislature, to the present one, "The Lehigh Zinc Company." In the previous year, Mr. Wharton bad contracted with the company for the erection of works for the manufacture of metallic zinc, and the construction of these was intrusted to Louis De Gee of the firm of De Gee, Gernant & Company, of Ougree, Belgium, who had been induced to come to the United States for this express purpose. These works were completed, and the first metallic zinc was produced in them in July, 1859. Three experts in this department of the business were at that time imported from the spelter and oxide works in Belgium. Their names were Andre Woot Detrixhe Francois Lemall Jean Henrard. Importations of Belgian experts and workmen have since then been made by the company, at various times. In 1864 and 1865, the company erected a mill for the rolling of sheet zinc, This was constructed under the superintendence of Alexander Trippel, who had previously been sent to Europe to acquaint himself with the methods of this production. The first sheet zinc was rolled in April, 1865. This was the first introduction of that art into this country; and all these several works have continued in unremitted activity to this day, their capacity being: for oxide of zinc, 3,000 tons per year; for metallic zinc, 3,600 tons per year; for sheet zinc, 3,000 casks per year, respectively-about one-half the annual consumption of the country, and of known superior qualities, owing to the usual purity of our ores. The mines have been worked to meet the demands of the several manufacturies, amounting in some single years to 19,000 tons of ore, including rich blende, which has been developed in the, progress of mining. The mines of the company are situated at Friedenville, in the Saucon valley, three and a half miles from South Bethlehem. In the working of these mines, at a very early day, and at shallow depth, water was encountered, and overcome by a small pump worked by a single horse-power; followed by a donkey pump, which is now in use for dressed ores. Next came a Burdon engine of thirty horse-power, followed, in 1863, by a Corliss engine of one hundred horse-power, working a series of centrifugal pumps which found their limit at a depth of sixty-five feet, with 1,500 gallons of water per minute. At this time the company decided to make more lasting provision for controlling the water by establishing power to raise 4,000 gallons per minute from a depth of one hundred and fifty feet, if so much should come, and, to this end, they erected and started, in 1865, an engine of thirty-two inch cylinder and nine feet stroke, working two twenty-two inch lifting pumps, to which a third twenty-two inch lift was soon added, and the shaft carried down to one hundred and twenty-two feet in 1866, when it encountered, and with seventeen strokes per minute, raised 5,600 gallons; and there found the limit of its capacity, But the engineer, Mr. John West, had already matured it plan of engine, pumps, and shaft for raising 12,000 gallons per minute from three hundred feet depth; and, in December, 1868, the company contracted with Messrs. Merrick, of Philadelphia, for this new engine, and a year later with Messrs. I. P. Morris & Co., for the pumps, boilers and mountings. The timber for shaft and pump rods was contracted for, in Georgia. This monster engine and pumping apparatus was put in motion at Friedensville on the nineteenth of January, 1872. From the address of the president of the company, made on that occasion, the following extract is made, as giving some idea of the enormous power of the machinery: "This is the engine which is destined to become famous as is the house that Jack built; this is the engine whose cylinder is one hundred and ten inches, and whose piston rod is ten inches, in diameter, with a ten-foot stroke; this is the engine that can work 'comfortably', as we are told, at twelve strokes per minute, and yet is not the least 'fussy'; the engine, each of whose walking beams weighs 48,000 pounds; twenty-six of whose pieces weigh each upwards of seven tons, and whose entire weight, including girders, is 1,313,300 pounds; the engine that can lift 52,800,000 pounds, or 26,400 tons, one foot high in one minute of time, with the majestic ease and consciousness of power with which an elephant lifts a straw; the engine that can raise 12,000 gallons of water per minute, from a depth of three hundred feet; which works, day and night, without rest; and whose influence is a mighty one towards transforming the subterranean haunts of Kobalt and gnome, where, from times Silurian, these spirits have sported undisturbed in the ice-cold sea, that noiselessly washes the shores of their crystal kingdom." The magnitude of the operations of the Lehigh Zinc Company, and their influence and effect on the prosperity of South Bethlehem, may be understood from the fact that the monthly pay-rolls of the company have carried over seven hundred names, representing perhaps four times that number of individuals living in and about the borough, find the vicinity of the names, all sustained by the products of this industry; while more than 40,000 tons of anthracite coal are annually consumed by the company in the processes of reduction and manufacture. The cost of the works was as follows: Oxide Works, $125,000 Spelter Works, 100,000 Rolling Mill, 51,000 They occupy ten acres of ground on the eastern side of New street, and extending northwardly from Second street to the Lehigh Valley Railroad. The present president, Mr. Benjamin C. Webster, has conducted the affairs of the company since September, 1863. BETHLEHEM IRON COMPANY. The works of this company are located on both sides of the Lehigh Valley Railroad, a short distance below, its junction with the North Pennsylvania Railroad. They have been under the management of Mr. John Fritz since their commencement, in 1860, and their present condition is an evidence of the skill and energy which planned and erected them. The products are pig-metal, iron and steel rails, shapes, Bessemer steel billets, etc. The works consist of: Five blast-furnaces for mill, foundry, and Bessemer irons; one blast-furnace for spiegel eisen; one large pattern, smith, and machine-shop; one foundry; one puddling and iron rail-mill; containing one 21 1/2 train for iron rails, shapes, etc.; one 12 1/2 train for small iron rails, shapes, etc.; nine single heating-furnaces; one 21 1/2 train for puddled-bars; thirteen double puddling-furnaces; One single puddling-furnace; one 5-ton steam-hammer. One steel-mill, containing two Bessemer converters; one 30 train for blooming Bessemer steel ingots; one 10-ton steam-hammer for cutting blooms; one 3 too steam-hammer; four Siemen's gas-furnaces for besting ingots; one 24 1/2 train for Bessemer steel rails and shapes; four Siemen's gas-furnaces for heating blooms. Their annual capacity is its follows: Bessemer Foundry and Mill, 70,000 Tons Spiegel Eisen, 1,200 Tons Iron Rails, 22,500 Tons Steel Rails, 50,000 Tons The Northampton Iron Company's blast furnace, at Freemansburg, is now leased by the Bethlehem Iron Company. The originator of the company was Augustus Wolle, Esq., of Bethlehem, who having confidence in the feasibility and promise of iron-manufacture in the Lehigh Valley, procured an Act of incorporation of "The Saucona Iron Company," dated April 8th, 1857. The failure of the Ohio Life Insurance and Trust Company, which occurred soon after, bringing in its train the financial panic of 1857, prevented the building of works, or even the organization of the company until the fourteenth of June, 1860. When an organization was effected by the choice of the following officers, viz: President-Alfred Hunt, of Philadelphia Directors- Augustus Wolle Asa Packer John Taylor Johnston John Knecht Edward Roberts Charles B. Daniel Charles W. Rauch Charles B. Daniel, Secretary and Treasurer. In the meantime the title of the company had been changed by Act of Assembly, to that of "The Bethlehem Rolling-Mill and Iron Company," and again on the first of May, 1861, it was by the same authority changed to "The Bethlehem Iron Company," as it still remains. 213 Eleven acres of ground having been purchased of Abbott, Cortright & Company, at three hundred dollars per acre, on the south side of the Lehigh Valley Railroad, and six acres more on the opposite side of that road, of A. Wolle & Company, at $1,50 per acre. The building of furnace No. 1 was commenced on the first named tract, July 16th, 1860, but the work proceeded very slowly, and it was not until the fifth of January, 1863, that the blast was flat on, by the hand of Miss Kate Powell, of Philadelphia. The first iron was smelted from a mixture of brown hematite from the Saucon Valley and magnetic oxide from Morris county, New Jersey, and was drawn the next day after blast was put on. The furnace continued in blast for thirty-four weeks, and was then blown out for some repairs; after which it was again put on, and remained in blast for three hundred and sixty-three, successive weeks, (about seven years) producing in that time 63,007 tons of pig-metal. The first rolling-mill was commenced in April, 1861, and was completed in the summer of 1863; the first iron for rolling, being puddled on the twenty-seventh of July of that year, and the first rails were rolled on the twenty-sixth of the following September. Furnace No. 2 was commenced in May, 1864, and the first blast was put on March 28th, 1867 First iron drawn March 30th. Furnace No. 3 was put in blast in December 1868. First iron drawn on the eighteenth of same month. The steel rail-mill was commenced on the "Andrews lot," in September, 1868. Precise data of completion not known. The company employs more than eight hundred men, and consumes 75,000 tons of coal annually. THE LEHIGH VALLEY BRASS WORKS. Were erected in the fall of 1863 by the proprietor, Mr. B. E. Lehman. The business carried on by him was established by his father, Ernst L. Lehman, in the year 1832, in the old town of Bethlehem, where he built the first complete brass foundry in this part of the country, and carried on that business, in connection with a coppersmith-shop for a period of twenty-five years, until his death, in 1857. The present proprietor, Mr. B. E. Lehman, then took charge of the business, which began to increase, to an extent that compelled the erection of the shops in South Bethlehem, known as the, Lehigh Valley Brass Works, where he removed in the spring of 1864. The product of the works is chiefly composed of brass add iron-fittings for steam, water and gas, engine brass-work, stop-valves for water-mains, &c., &c. From twenty to thirty hands are usually kept employed in the various branches of the business. A number of specialties are manufactured here adapted for iron and steel-works and furnaces, many of which have found a large sale and have added greatly to the success and reputation of the establishment. THE SOUTH BETHLEHEM SHOVEL WORKS This company was formed January 16th, 1871. Firm, W. T. Palfrey R. A. Abbott D. P. Dougherty M. L. Abbott Capital, $1,200 In September 1873, a new firm was formed consisting of W. T. Palfrey M. E. Abbott Thomas Weiss, who bought the land on which they then erected one-half the present works, at a cost of $5,000. They commenced work in the February following, and up to January, 1874, the business had increased so much that they were compelled to double the size of their buildings, all of which, with the machinery, cost about $11,000. They now employed eleven men, and turn out an average of fifteen dozen shovels per day. The present firm is Weiss & Brother. THE RAILROAD BRIDGE. Of the Lehigh and Susquehanna Company was built in 1867. Its length is four hundred and thirty-eight feet, by actual measurement. The connection of the Lehigh and Susquehanna with the North Pennsylvania Railroad Company was made, over this bridge, in the spring of 1868. THE BANKING HOUSE. Commenced business in October, 1870. It was at first located in a room on the first floor of the building owned by the Lehigh Valley Railroad Company, and occupied by their offices. In the year 1872 it was removed to the new, ANTHRACITE BUILDING, which had been built, in the previous year, on Lehigh street, near the old Philadelphia road, Messrs, Wilbur & Company do a general banking and collection business. Wm. L. Dunglison, Cashier. THE SOUTH BETHLEHEM BUILDING AND SAVING FUND ASSOCIATION. Commenced business, under its charter, in February 1871. Loans were granted during the first year on fifty-four shares. There has been a gradual increase until, during the past year-loans were granted on eighty-three shares. There are now (1877) seven hundred and ninety-three shares subscribed for. The officers are James McMahon, President William Rudolph George Ziegenfass, Secretary and Solictor Wm. L. Dunglison, Treasurer THE LEHIGH VALLEY BUILDING AND LOAN ASSOCIATION. Commenced business, under its charter, February 1st, 1871. The present officers are: Henry Erwin, President Thomas Love, Vice-President Directors-for four years: Simpson Brower Jos. J. Marsteller John Shannon For three years: Patrick Smith J. Z. Guth John Opp For two years J. H. Yost J. S. Allum R. R. Cress For one year: Thos. K. Mohr Abm. Yost Levin Giess Rufus A, Grider, Solicitor Reuben R. Cress, Treasurer Rufus A. Gribler, Secretary NEWSPAPERS. Several newspapers have, from time to time, been started in South Bethlehem, but all have proved short-lived. Among these, were the "Northampton Conservative" (weekly), established by Milton F. Cashing, September 30th, 1868; the "Daily Morning Progress", by O. B. Sigler & Co., April 3d, 1871; the "Morning Star", which was established by A. F. Yost, Esq., as a daily journal, January 18th, 1877, but existed as such only for the short space of two months. PUBLIC SCHOOLS. The first public school building, in South Bethlehem- was erected in 1858. Its size was about 20 x 25 feet; and so little was then foreseen, of the growth of the town and its prospective requirements for school purposes, that Mr. Koch, then School Director, on being asked if he considered the house to be sufficiently large, replied that it would be ample in size for the next twenty years. But instead of twenty, it was only two years before a larger house became not only necessary, but indispensable, and it new and touch larger one was built in 1860, but, this in turn soon became inadequate, and, in 1867,the following schools were built. THE PENROSE SCHOOL. Was established. This building was erected on Vine street above Fourth, and was first occupied on the seventeenth of October, in that year, Jacob Campbell, Principal. THE MELROSE SCHOOL. Building located on Poplar street, above Fourth, erected in 1870, first, occupied on the eleventh of October, in that year. Both this and the Penrose are graded schools, under control of the school Directors, and under the supervision of the Superintendent of Schools of Northampton county. The Principal of the Melrose is A L. Gope. The Board of School Directors of South Bethlehem is, at present (1877), composed as follows: James McMahon, President O. R. Wilt, Secretary Charles L. Boyer R. R. Cress Michael Dinan Philip Steinmiller Edward Murphy Henry McCool Charles Quinn THE LEHIGH UNIVERSITY. BY PROF. HENRY COPPEE, LL.D. This noble institution was founded in the year 1866, by the Hon. Asa Packer, of Mauch Chunk. His first provision for the University consisting of a large grant of land, in South Bethlehem, situated on the gentle slope of the Lehigh Mountain, about a quarter of a mile from the river. PICTURE OF LEHIGH UNIVERSITY APPEARS HERE For the purpose of buildings, apparatus, etc., he then appropriated the sum of $500,000. This has been expended in the erection add furnishing of several extensive halls, and residences for the professors; and he has since made additional donations to carry out his plan of completely establishing a scientific and literary Institution. The aggregate of his gifts is over one million of dollars. The principal building, called PACKER HALL, in honor of the founder, stands seven hundred feet from Packer avenue. It is of stone, and presents an imposing front, two hundred and thirteen feet in length. At the western extremity is a belfry tower, one hundred and twenty-five feet high, containing a very handsome double stair, the president's room, and the archive room, all fire-proof. At the eastern end is a large advanced wing, five stories high, in which are the principal lecture and recitation-rooms. The central portion, eighty feet long by forty feet wide, contains the museum, the drawing academy, and a beautiful chapel, with handsome clustered windows of stained glass. To the west, descending the hill, are the residences of the president and professors; commodious houses, comporting architecturally with tile great hall. 214 Eastward of Packer Hall is the new library building, a very handsome stone structure, skillfully arranged, and capable of containing 75,000 volumes. Situated on Packer avenue, towards the eastern extremity of the grounds. are two capacious brick buildings-Christmas Hall and Saucon Hall-in which are dormitories for the students. In the former there is an excellent mess-hall, conducted in the most reasonable terms. West of Packer Hall, is the Sayre Astronomical Observatory, presented to the University by Robert H. Sayre, Esq., a member of the Board of Trustees, and of the Executive Committee, It contains an equatorial telescope, a transit, a superior astronomical clock, and other instruments, in the use of which the student is fully instructed. The Hon. Charles Brodhead, of Bethlehem, has presented seven acres of land adjoining that of Judge Packers grant, giving symmetry to the University Park. Mr. E. P. Wilbur, one of the trustees, has endowed a scholarship of two hundred dollars, payable yearly, to the best student in the second class. Our limited space forbids the mention of many other valuable donations to the cabinets of the Institution. The Lehigh University is polytechnic in character. After a common course for all students for a year and a half, in which is given the elementary instruction necessary as a basis for all future study, the student enters, according to his inclination, one among several technical schools, viz: 1. General Literature. 2. Civil Engineering. 3. Mechanical Engineering. 4. Mining and Metallurgy. 5. Analytical Chemistry A special degree is conferred in such of the schools. The course is of four years, except that in the school of mining, which is four and a half years. Let it be particularly noted that, by the late munificence of the founder, tuition, in all the branches, has been declared FREE OF CHARGE. This extends the facilities for an education of the first class to many hitherto unable to take a university course. The entire expenses; for room-rent, board, light, and heat, are between four and five dollars per week. A student is only required to provide his own books, materials, chemicals, etc. The chemical laboratory, in Packer Hall, is one of the finest and most complete in the country. The museums and cabinets are daily increasing in value, and the apparatus for illustration in physics is large and well selected. The instruction, in all the departments, is very thorough. The Board of Trustees, more than thirty in number, is composed of gentlemen of station and influence, who are greatly interested in the prosperity of the Institution. They are represented by an Executive Committee of eight trustees, who meet monthly to conduct the general affairs. The committee is at present thus Composed: G. R. Linderman, M. D., Chairman Hon. Asa Packer Right Rev. Bishop Howe Robert H. Sayre Eckly B. Coxe F. P. Wilbur Robert A. Packer H. Stanley Goodwin, Secretary The Bishop of Central Pennsylvania is ex-officio President of the Board of Trustees. The first President of the University was Henry Coppee, LL.D., who was appointed in 1866 he resigned in 1874, when he was elected Professor of English Literature and History. In 1875, he was succeeded in the presidential chair, by the Rev. John M. Leavitt, D.D., the present incumbent. The following is a list of the Professors, in 1877: J. M. LEAVITT, D.D., Professor of Christian Evidences etc. HENRY COPPEE, L.L.D., Professor of English Literature, etc. WILLIAM H. CHANDLER, Ph.D., Professor of Chemistry. B. W. FRAZIER, A.M. Professor of Mineralogy, etc. H. W. HARDING, M. A., Professor of Physic, etc. I. KIMBALL, PH. D., Professor of Geology C. L. DOOLITTLE, C. E., Professor of Mathematic and Astronomy A. I. DUBOIS, P. H. D. Professor of Civil Engineering, etc. There are, besides, six instructors, and it is in contemplation to increase the number of chairs at an early day. It should be added that the site of the University is unrivaled, for picturesque scenery, pure air, good water, and general salubrity. It is fifty-four miles from Philadelphia, by the North Pennsylvania Railroad; and eighty-seven from New York, by the Lehigh Valley and New Jersey Central railroads. Applicants for admission into the lowest class must be sixteen years old, and of good moral character, and must pass an examination on the following subjects: Arithmetic, complete; Algebra, through Equations of the Second Degree; Geometry, six books; English Grammar, Geography, and Spelling. From what has been said, the citizens of Northampton county, and all readers, of this work, will see that there is, in their midst, a University with a complete system of professional schools, suited to all the demands of the age, well founded and ably officered, and with a high standard of scholarship, inviting all who need its instruction to come and receive it "without money and without price." It is hoped that its halls will be always filled with eager and ardent learners, who, while gaining treasures of knowledge for themselves, will do honor to the splendid and generous charity of its noble founder, ASA PACKERD. ST. PETER'S EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN CHURCH. Was the first church opened for divine services in that place. The founder, and for a number of years the pastor, of it was Rev. A T. Geissenhainer. The corner-stone of the first building was laid on the afternoon of the thirteenth Sunday after Trinity, August 30th, 1863, when, besides the pastor, the following clergymen were present: Revs. S. K. Brobst, J. K. Fans, and L. W. Heidenreich. This building was of brick, 25 x 65 feet in its dimensions, and was built over a set Of pews that the founder had brought from a former mission-field, Trenton, N. J. The first service was held by the pastor on the fifth Sunday in Lent, March 13th, 1864. Text, I Sam. 7:12. On this occasion, some twenty persons signed their names as the first members of the church. And on Good Friday the first officers were elected, their names being Philip Malberger Elders Joseph Klase John M. Ritter Deacons. Joseph S. Smith Jacob Hames Nicholas Sauer On Easter Sunday following, the first communion was celebrated by twenty-one members. On Sunday, June 26th, 1864, the church was formally dedicated to the services of the Triune God. On this occasion, Rev. C. A. Ebert, of Newark, N. J., preached in the morning and Revs. S. K. Brobst, and, F. J. F. Schantz, in the afternoon. In the spring of 1867, Rev. Geissenhainer removed to Philadelphia, and Rev. Jacob Zentner served the congregation in connection with St., Peter's, of Allentown, for a little over a year, when he accepted a call to Williamsport, Pa., and the congregation became vacant. It was then connected with the Bethlehem charge served by Rev. J. B. Rath, who continued to minister to the congregation till 1870, when his entire time was required in Bethlehem. Mr. C. J. Cooper, then a student at the Theological Seminary, in Philadelphia, supplied the Congregation from the tenth of April, 1870, until after his ordination by Synod, in the following June, when he received a formal call from the congregation and accepting it, entered upon his labors in the beginning of August, he is the present pastor. At the close of 1872, it was found that the building was inadequate to the wants of the Sunday-school and the congregation, which had continued to increase. On the nineteenth of January 1873, the congregation decided to tear down the old church, and erect a new one. On the second Sunday after Trinity, June 22d, 1873, the corner-stone of the new building was laid by the present pastor, Rev. Prof. G. F. Miller, of Allentown; and Revs. J. B. Rath, F. W. Weiskotten, and J. W. Bieber, of Bethlehem, assisting. The dimensions of this church are 42 x 71 feet, two stories high. It is located on Vine street, between Fifth and Packer avenue. On the following Christmas Eve, the first services were held in the partially completed basement by the Sunday-school, and on Christmas morning, the pastor preached the first sermon. On the following Palm Sunday, March 29th, 1874, this part of the building was dedicated; Rev. A. T. Geissenhainer, the founder of the church preaching the dedicatory sermon. He following clergy were also present and assisted in the afternoon and evening: Rev. Prof. Richards, of Muhlenberg College, Allentown Rev. Weiskotten, of Bethlehem Rev. Prof. A. R. Horne, of Kutztown, State Normal School. On account of the panic of 1873, the auditorium remains unfinished at this time, but the congregation has taken steps towards its completion. From a membership of twenty, the number has steadily increased during these fourteen years, so that the present membership numbers four hundred. The present worth of the property is estimated at from $10,000 to $12,000. 215 MORAVIAN CHURCH On the first of May 1859, the first Sabbath-school in South Bethlehem was opened in the district school house, by Miss Amanda Jones, The number of scholars in attendance was eleven which number has since been swelled to more than five hundred. A month after the opening of the school, preaching was commenced in the same place, and was continued in South Bethlehem, by different members of the Moravian College, until 1861, when Rev. L. F. Kampman was appointed pastor. He was succeeded by Rev. F. F. Hagen, who was in turn succeeded by Rev. H. J. Van Vleck, March 13th, 1866. The present pastor, Rev, William H. Oerter. Succeeded Mr. Van Vleck, in June 1871. The first church edifice of the Moravian, in South Bethlehem, was erected in 1863, and divine worship was first held in it by Rev. Mr. Hagen November 20th, 1864, It, stood on the present grounds of the Lehigh University, to which institution it was conveyed by the Moravians in 1865. After passing into the hands of the University it became known as Christmas Hall. The present Moravian church edifice is a plain brick building, located on Elm street, near Packer Avenue. It was erected in 1867, and opened for divine worship March 9th, 1868, At present, the communicant membership is one hundred and seventy-four. Total membership, three hundred and twenty-three. The Sabbath-school has an attendance of three hundred and twenty-three, with twelve teachers. CHURCH OF THE HOLY INFANCY (CATHOLIC). The location of this church edifice is on the corner of Fourth and Locust streets. It is a substantial and commodious. building of stone, and was erected in 1863 and 1864, mainly through the instrumentality of Mr. James McMahon. First opened for divine worship, October 24th, 1864. Pastor, Rev. Michael C, McEnroe, The membership is not far from 3,000. A tract of two and a-half acres on the mountain side, in the extreme southeast corner of the tract owned by Hon. Asa Packer, was by him donated to this church for cemetery purposes, The first interment in this ground a as that of James Griffin, October 22d, 1867. FIRST REFORMED CHURCH. This congregation was organized on the thirteenth of October, 1867, under the pastoral charge of Rev. J. K. Loos, who preached his first sermon in South Bethlehem on the twentieth of January of that year, At the organization of the congregation, the, following officers were elected, viz.: William Rothrock John Drissel Elders William A. Lynn Henry M. Rice Aaron H. Lynn Henry O. Trumbore, trustees The elders and deacons were ordained and installed on Sunday, November 10th, 1867. Rev. J. K. Loos served the congregation until June 5th, 1870, when he was succeeded by the Rev. Henry Hess, who was appointed supply for the congregation by the Classis of Goshenhoppen, The pastorate became vacant in the spring of 1871; and from the first of September 1871, to the present time, the congregation has been served by the Rev. N. Z. Snyder. The congregation numbers one hundred and ninety-six numbers; the Lord's Supper is celebrated four times a year the, festivals of the church year are observed, and the, congregation is steadily increasing in membership and efficiency. The Sunday-school of the congregation was organized on the twenty-second of December, 1867 with seven scholars in attendance. It now numbers eleven officers, seventeen teachers, and one hundred and thirty scholars. The Child's Treasury is distributed twice a month, and the library number, two hundred find thirty-one volumes. The church building is located on the north side of Fourth street, between New and Vice streets, on a lot sixty feet, front, and one hundred and twenty feet deep. The building is of bricks, 40 x 50 feet; a plain, neat structure. It was erected during the summer and fall of 1870, and consecrated on the 22d of October, 1871, by the present pastor, Rev. N. Z. Snyder, Rev, S. G. Wagner, of Allentown, preached the consecration sermon on Sunday afternoon. The congregation, also owns a quarter of an acre of ground in Fountain Hill Cemetery for burial purposes, and a fair estimate of all the property owned by the congregation would set the value at about $8,000. THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. Situated on the corner of Fourth and Vine streets, was erected in the years 1870 and 1871. The lecture-room was opened for divine worship on the ninth of April in the last named year. The first pastor was the Rev. J. Albert Rondthaler, who was succeeded by Rev. J. Thomson Oler. The first session was composed of Rev. J. A. Rondthaler W. Calvin Ferriday W. A. McCormick FOUNTAIN HILL. Is the name given to that part of South Bethlehem lying on the eastern and southeastern slope of the Lehigh Mountain. This name had its origin from the numerous beautiful springs flowing out, along the upper part of the hill, and was first applied in 1866; prior to which time there but few houses here and it had none of the characteristics of a town. It extends from the Union depot south westwardly, and includes within its limits the Anthracite Building of E. P. Wilbur & Co., the Church of the Nativity, St. Luke's Hospital, Bishopthorpe School for Young Ladles, and the Fountain Bill Cemetery. In 1854, a portion of the hill extending from the railroad depot southwest to Seminole street, was purchased by Rudolphus Kent, Charles Hacker, and Samuel R. Shipley, all of Philadelphia they had it laid out in a town plot substantially as it now is. They adopted Indian names for the streets, as will be seen by reference to the map of this part of the town soon after this, Mr. Robert R. Sayre, engineer and superintendent of the Lehigh Valley Railroad, purchased the eastern portion (rather more than one-half) of the block of ground bounded by Wyandot street, Delaware avenue (since connected with Third street), Ottawa, and Lenape streets. If is house was erected in 1857, being the first one built after the laying off into street. At this time the only building on Fountain Hill, besides the one mentioned, were the residence, farm house, and buildings of Mr. Augustus Fiot, now Bishopthorpe School the Water Core of F. H. Oppelt, now St. Luke's Hospital the Freytag House, then owned by 0. H. Wheeler, Esq. now the residence of Tinsley Jeter, Esq. the residence of W. H. Sayre, Esq., at the southwest corner of Wyandot street and Delaware avenue, was erected in 1862 that of E. P. Wilbur, Esq., in the block bounded by Wyandot Lenape, Lehigh, and Ottawa streets, in 1864 those of Jobn Smylie and Dr. Martin were built about the same period, or a little later. The handsome residence of Dr. G. B. Linderman, with its graperies and green-houses, was built, in 1870, This was the last of the larger residences built on that portion of Fountain Hill, within the limits of Northampton county. In 1860, the Freytag property, consisting of dwelling, and twenty-two acres of land, was purchased by Tinsley Jeter, who also purchased, in 1866, the Fiot property, consisting of about one hundred and fifty acres. About the same time, he also bought, from Messrs. Harker & Shipley, several blocks of ground, parts of that already mentioned as having been laid out by them. During the year 1868, the town plot was extended by him southwestward as far as the intersection of Delaware avenue with the Emaus road. The Indian names, of the streets, however, were not continued. The streets of this part of the, town were named after persons who had at some time, been owners or residents here. FOUNTAIN HILL WATER-WORKS. In 1866, Tinsley Jeter built, a small reservoir near Bishopthorpe School, and laid pipes thence, through several streets, as far as the Union Depot, thus supplying Fountain Hill with mountain spring, water. In 1872, the Cold Spring Water Company was incorporated, and pipes, were laid from certain springs on land of Dr. 0. B. Linderman, along Delaware avenue and Huron street, to Wyandot street. Subsequently, the South Bethlehem Gas and Water Company have laid pipes, through portions of Fountain Hill. LECHAUWEKI SPRINGS. Though not on a part of Fountain Hill, yet merit some notice here. The first building for the entertainment of summer visitors was erected by Mr. John Smylie, in 1872 and 1873. During the years 1874 and 1875, the larger buildings were erected, and since then the place has been a favorite resort of summer visitor, from the cities. The, Governor Work, were built here in 1872, and in 1875, St. Mary's Chapel was built and opened for divine worship; the ground being given, and a large portion of the cost being defrayed by Mr. John Smylie, the owner of the Springs. OPERA HOUSE. In 1872 and 1873, Mr. Abraham Yost, contractor and builder, purchased various pieces of ground, near the corner of Fourth add Wyandot streets, and thereafter erected a large number of stores and dwelling houses in that vicinity. The Opera House was built by him in 1875, and formally opened in February, 1876. The of that part of the town is largely due to the enterprise and energy of Mr. Yost. 216 ST. LUKE'S HOSPITAL. This institution was chartered by the Legislature in the early part of the year 1872. Under the charter, the Board of Trustees was made to consist of the Bishop Of the Diocese (Episcopal), and the rector with two or More lay members of the Episcopal Churches in the Lehigh Valley. The first members of the Board from South Bethlehem were: Rev. Cortlandt Whitehead Robert H. Sayre Tinsley Jeter John Smylie During the year 1872, a change was made in the charter, and the trustees are not now required to be front the churches. In 1873, a double tenement house, on Carpenter street, was purchased and fitted for the Hospital, which was opened in October, of that year. Under the amended charter, the first officers were as follows: President of the Board Rt. Rev. H. A. De Wolfe Howe, D. D. Vice-President, Rev. Edmund de Schwentitz Second Vice-President, Charles Albright, Esq. Secretary, William H. Chandler Treasurer, E. P. Wilbur Chaplain, Rev. Cortlandt Whitehead The Hospital was continued in the building mentioned till the summer of the year 1876. In the early part of that year, though the munificent liberality of Hon. Asa Packer, the Water Cure property, consisting of building and twenty acres of ground, was purchased, and presented to the Board of Trustees. Early in June 1876, the removal was made to the present building. The work of raising money and other means for the maintenance of the Hospital is largely assisted by the Ladies Aid Society of St. Luke's Hospital, whose officers are as follows: President, Mrs. Robert H. Sayre Secretary, Mrs. Tinsley Jeter Treasurer, Mrs. B. C. Webster executive Committee, consisting of the officers above named, together with Mrs. E. P. Wilbur, Mrs, Henry Coppee, and Mrs, Cortlandt Whitehead. The officers for the present year (1877), the: Board of Trustees-President, Rt. Rev .M. A. De Howe First Vice-President, Rt. Rev, E. de Schweinitz Second Vice-President, Rev. W. C. Cultell, D.D. Secretary, W, H. Chandler, Ph.D. Treasurer, E. P. Wilbur, South Bethlehem. Executive Committee- William H. Chandler, Chairman H. Stanley Goodwin, Secretary Tinsley Jeter B. C. Webster Robert H. Sayre John Smylie, Jr. William L. Dunglison Wm. H. Sayre A. H. Fracker. BISHOPTHORPE SCHOOL FOR GIRLS. Established in 1868, under the auspices of the Episcopal Church, and opened on the fifth of September in that year. First Board Of Trustees, Rt. Rev. William Bacon Stevens, Bishop of Pennsylvania Rev. Eliphalet Nott Potter Tinsley Jeter Robert H. Sayre William H. Sayre, Jr. James Jenkins H. Stanley Goodwin Henry Coppee First Principal, Miss Edith L. Chase (from 1868 to 1870) Second Principal, Miss Fanny L. Walsh since 1870). The Bishopthorpe School property owned by the Board of Trustees, consists of the buildings Dow occupied, together with large lot of ground, 300 x 720 feet, and bounded by Delaware avenue on the southeast; Bishopthorpe street on the northeast; and Jeter avenue street on the northwest. The present officers are as follows President of the Board, Rt. Rev. M. De W. Howe, D.D., Reading, Pa. Secretary and Treasurer, William L. Dunglison (since 1870) Principal, Miss Fanny I. Walsh THE CHURCH OF THE NATAVITY (Protestant Episcopal.) It is believed that the first regular services held in Bethlehem, according to the order of the Protestant Episcopal Church, were conducted during the summer Of 1855, in the Temperance Hall, on Broad street. But the movement having for its object the formation of an Episcopal congregation and the erection of a church was begun in May 1862. At that time a meeting was held of the communicants of that church, then resident in South Bethlehem, at which meeting eight were present. A Sunday-school was immediately organized in the station of the North Pennsylvania Railroad Company, starting with ten teachers and fifty-two pupils. In July, of the same year, the Rev. Eliphalet N. Potter was appointed to this place, in conjunction with Allentown. In June, of the next year, 1863, the church was recognized by the Convention Of Pennsylvania, and elected the Rev. Mr. Potter as their first rector. The church building was located in South Bethlehem, because no other house of worship had as yet been erected on south side of the river, and it lot was purchased at a nominal price from Messrs. Kent, Hacker &, Shipley. The church was erected in 1863 and 1864, Mr. E. T. Potter, of New York. being the architect. The corner-stone was laid August 6th, 1863, and the church was consecrated April 19th, 1865. A rectory was built in 1865-66. First vestry- Tinsley Jeter William H. Sayre Robert H. Sayre William H. Sayre, Jr. John Smylie, all of South Bethlehem Ira Cortright, Bethlehem Asa Packer, Mauch Chunk Solomon W. Roberts, of Philadelphia In 1868, the Rev. R. N. Potter resigned the rectorship, and on March 1st, 1869, Rev. Robert J. Nevin succeeded to the charge. On the first of November, of the same year, the Rev. John I. Forbes became acting rector in the absence of the Rev. Mr. Nevin, in Europe. January 8th, 1870, the Rev. Mr. Nevin resigned, and was succeeded on November 1st, 1870, by the present incumbent, the Rev. Cortlandt Whitehead. In May, 1876, the Church of the Nativity was elaborately painted in polychrome, and now stands as one of the most beautiful and best appointed churches in the Lehigh Valley. The parochial statistics for the year 1876, were as follows: Families, 75 baptized during the year, 21 since the organization of the parish, 350 confirmed during the year 13 since organization, 217 present number of communicants, 117 connected with the parish since its organization, 335 marriages, 2 since organization, 30 buried, 11 since organization, 72 Sunday-school teachers, 21 Sunday-school pupils, 300 Offering for Parish purposes during the year, $3,807 86 Offering for the Diocese during the year 708 19 Offering for the Missions, &C, 348 64 ________ $4,864 69 Rector- Rev. Cordandt Whitehead Wardens- William H, Sayre Henry Coppee, LL.D. Vestry men- Robert H. Sayre John Smylie, Jr. C. M. Dodson Wm. L. Dunglison Tinsley Jeter H.S. Goodwin THE FOUNTAIN HILL CEMETERY COMPANY. Was incorporated in 1872, and located their cemetery on a plot of seven acres of ground, known in early times as "Das Buchweizenfeld," i.e. the buckwheat-field, occupying the extreme western limit of the Hoffert farm, subsequently owned by Augustus Fiot and after his decease, purchased by Tinsley Jeter. The first officers were: President, George Ziegenfuss Vice-President, H. K. Shatter Secretary, O. K. Wilt. The first interment was made August 28th, 1872, being an infant son of Jacob and Rebecca Bingel. 217 THE BOROUGH OF SOUTH EASTON THE location of South Easton is on the south bank of the Lehigh River, directly opposite the town of Easton. It was, originally a portion of the township of Williams, and a part of the present site of the town was, in years long past, a farm, owned by Melchoir Hay. The ancestor of the Hay family of later date, and one of the axemen who helped to clear away the thickets in the Forks of the Delaware and along the Bushkill, for Parsons and Scull, when they laid out the town of Easton in 1750. His tract was three hundred acres in extent, and was (probably on account of services rendered to the agents of the Proprietaries) freed forever from the usual quit-rent, which, at the rate, would have amounted to 12s. 6d. or $1.66 per annum, on the entire tract. Jacob Everly, of Nazareth, purchased the three hundred acres (there was another, small lot belonging to the Hay property) in the year 1796, and two years later sold it again to Henry Snyder, of Easton, for eight hundred pounds. It continued as simply a farm tract for thirty years, when it fell into the hands of the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company, and by them the town of South Easton (the first modest commencement of the present borough) was laid out in the year 1833. It was incorporated as a borough July 8th, 1840. An Act of Assembly had been passed May 27th, 1840, entitled "An Act to erect the town of South Easton, in the county of Northampton, into a borough, and for other purposes," which Act directed an election to be held at the house of David Moyer, in said borough, "To elect one citizen who shall be styled Burgess; and six citizens who shall be a Council, and shall also elect, as aforesaid, a High Constable." Such election having been held on the fourth of July, 1840, the following officers were duly elected Burgess-Christian Martin Councilmen- Wm. Nyce Bartholomew Murtha Amos Rogers Gilbert Valentine Geo. Savage David Moyer High Constable Jacob Deiley In the year 1865, the borough was made subject to the restrictions, imposed and invested with all the privileges and powers conferred, by "An Act regulating boroughs," etc., passed in 1851. It was the canal outlet, and the very extensive water-power furnished by the canal, which induced the establishment of the town by the company in 1833. Apart, front these the advantages of location would never have been thought sufficient to invite the establishment of business, other than that of agriculture. INITIAL ENTERPRISES. The first enterprise of the nature of manufacturing, which was established at South Easton, was a saw-mill, erected in 1832, by A. Abbott and James McKeen. BUCKET-FACTORY. In the winter of 1833-34, Messrs. Bush & Paling started a patent bucket- factory, but this was an unsuccessful enterprise, and its duration was short. They failed in 1836, and the building was then purchased by a Mr. Jones, who converted it into a Grist Mill which was at first but a small affair with one run of stones, but it was soon after purchased by Clark & Maxwell, who enlarged it to nearly three times its former size, and made it two-stories in height, and the firm carried on the enlarged business for some time. Then Clark retired and the mill was operated by Maxwell alone. In 1867 the firm became Maxwell & Palmer, and six years later Maxwell retired, leaving the business solely to Mr. Palmer, who is still the proprietor. The mill has now three-run of stones and does a good business. MECHANICS. Amos Rogers was the first, to open the business of blacksmithing in South Easton. He built the first shop in 1834, and continued uninterruptedly in the calling until 1870, when he was obliged to retire on account of failing health. He made the picks which were used in the excavation for the first cotton-mill, the Glendon Furnace, and rolling-mill; and for several years be had eight men in his employ. Joseph Waltman was the first house-carpenter in the town, he having built a house here in the fall of 1834. THE FIRST PUBLIC HOUSE. In the town was licensed in April 1834, and opened by Henry Eichman, at, the corner of Canal and Delaware streets; the site of the present hotel of John Young. THE FIRST STORE. Was opened in 1834, by Philip H. Depui. It was a small grocery store, near the corner of Canal and Abbott streets, It was the only store in South Easton for settle years, until the general store of Nice & McKeen was opened. THE FIRST PHYSICIAN. Was Dr. Alexander Gaston, who came here from West Chester. One of the first householders of the town was Amos Rogers, who is still living, the oldest, resident of South Easton. A SECOND FLOUR-MILL. Was erected by Charles Swift, in 1834 it was a stone structure, and used as a merchant flouring-mill, he continued the business for twelve or fourteen years when he failed and it passed into the hands of Thomas Stewart, and then of R M. Wells, who continued in business until 1855 or 1856. He took the mill, and started the foundry and machine business in partnership with James Kidd. In this building was built the engine and boiler of the steamboat Alfred Thomas,1 which exploded on the Delaware River, in 1860, The building was then sold to Stewart & Co. THE SPINNING OF COTTON. Has had place among the industries of South Easton, since the year 1835, when it was commenced by Swift & Beck. Their enterprise, wag the pioneer of the business, which has become so important it branch of industry in the borough, in the years which have succeeded. SMELTING. About the year 1836, the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company offered a premium of 100,000 tons of coal to the person who should first discover a practicable method of smelting ore by the use of anthracite. This induced many to make the attempt, among whom was James Van Buren, of the State of New York-a relative of President Van Buren-who came to South Easton and built an anthracite furnace, in which to experiment with a view to Secure the reward. But, after spending two years and large sums of money in the attempt, be continued unsuccessful, and was obliged to abandon the project, which was eventually wound up by a sheriffs sale. The furnace built by Mr. Van Buren is still standing. Mr. David Thomas, however, who was experimenting in Catasauqua, finally achieved success, and received the 100,000 tons of coal he was the founder of the Crane Iron Company; the first which successfully used anthracite for smelting, in the United States. For making pig-iron, was erected in South Easton, in 1839, by Barnet, Swift, & Company. The blast was driven by, the water-power of the canal. The fuel used was charcoal, from near the Lehigh Water Gap. The ore smelted was principally the brown hematite, mined at the base of the South Mountain, with a small proportion of magnetic ore from New Jersey. The furnace produced about twenty-five tons per week. In 1844, the furnace, together with the large stone foundry annexed, came into possession of Frederick Goddell, who demolished the furnace, and on its site erected a new one, in which anthracite was used. A BLAST-FURNACE. For making pig-iron, was erected in South Easton, by 1839, by Barnet, Swift, & Company. The blast was driven by the water-power of the canal The fuel used was charcoal, from Deny the Lehigh Witter Gap. The ore smelted was principally the brown hematite, ruined at the base of the South Mountain, with a small proportion of magnetic ore from New Jersey. The furnace produced about twenty-five tons per week. In 1844, the furnace, together with the large stone foundry annexed, came into possession of Frederick Goddell, who demolished the furnace, and on its site, erected a new one, in which anthracite was used. OPENING OF THE RAILROAD. The first charter of the Lehigh Valley Railroad was obtained in April 1846, but so great were the obstacles to construction, and so many the changes, that the. projectors found themselves under the necessity of asking, for various causes, that it was not until November 27th, 1852, that the great rock cut below South Easton was commenced. It was a heavy undertaking, but it was necessary that it should be made, to give the road an outlet across the Delaware. Hon. Asa Packer was the contractor for the work, and he pushed it on with so much vigor that the road was delivered to the company, and was ready for the opening of traffic, on the twenty-fourth of September, 1855. Trains, however, had run through from South Easton to Allentown from June 11th of that year. The first railroad bridge by which the tracks crossed the Delaware, was a two-storied affair, over the upper of which the trains of life, Central and Valley roads could pass, and the lower of which was for the tracks of the Belvidere Delaware, which, however, rose to the grade of the Lehigh Valley Road, about half a mile further up the river. This old arrangement has been done away for some years, and flow, over the magnificent new iron bridge, the trains all cross the Delaware on a level. The opening of the railroad at South Easton was of course, the commencement of a new era in the towns prosperity, and from that time until the revulsion of 1873, her progress has been very gratifying. In 1850, the number of dwelling houses in South Easton was one hundred and thirty-three; number of families two hundred and seventy; population, 1,511. SOUTH EASTON ASSESSMENT OF 1853. Valuation of Real Estate, $2,559,133 Valuation of Occupation and Professions, 57,775 Excess Occupations and Professions, 8,575 Money at Interest, 19,350 Valuation of 117 horses, and 35 Cows, 7,571 Valuation of 20 Pleasure Carriages, 1,130 Valuation of Cabs, Stages, &c., 525 Excess of Furniture, 700 Watches, 600 ________ Whole amount of Valuation, $357,389 _________ _________ Number of taxables, 419 __________ __________ (Taxes) States Taxes, $954 32 County Taxes, 834 61 State School Tax, 147 24 ____________________________________________________________________ 1. Immediately after the explosion of the Alfred Thomas viz: March 28th, 1860, the boiler of the locomotive "Excelsior" exploded on the Lehigh Valley Railroad, near South Easton. The locomotive had attached to it a lot of empty cattle cars and a passenger car. The shock was terrible! windows were broken across the Lehigh, and pieces of the boiler, burs, screws, &c., were scattered in all directions. A bell, weighing about eighty pounds, was picked up two or three squares from the locomotive after the explosion. There were three men on the locomotive when the explosion occurred- Geo, Winters, engineer, who was cut on the forehead J. Bullman, brakeman, had his arm dislocated, his leg cut, and received other injuries in different parts of his person Wm. Pharos, brakesman who had his left arm badly cut, and was injured in the side. A fireman-Mr. Hampton-on the locomotive "Bushkill" which stood near the "Excelsior," received a number of bruises Thos. Eroms, who happened to be passing at the time of the accident, was cut about the body but none of them were so injured as to endanger life. The boiler was blown out in front which saved the lives of those who were on the locomotive. Had it gone in the direction of the fire-box Winters, Bullman, and Pharos, would have been killed instantly. 218 Prior to the year 1853, when the construction of the Lehigh Valley Railroad was commenced, the borough contained three large farms and two or three, smaller tracts, all under cultivation; and no buildings, excepting the farm buildings, were then located south of Nesquehoning street; and in what is now First Ward all the building, were located on the low land near Canal street. In this Ward, a short distance east of the Lehigh Valley Railroad depot, on the opposite side of the street, stands the old college building; the spot where originated the enterprise which resulted in the establishing of Lafayette College. The building of the Lehigh Valley Railroad, and the locating of the round-house and company machine-shops in this place, gave new life and vigor to all enterprises within the borough. The cotton manufacturing company, and the rolling-mill company, improved and enlarged their manufacturing capacities; and improvements of many kinds sprang tip in rapid succession. About this time, the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company disposed of their farm, from Wilkesbarre street southward, to J. C. Wirebach, who immediately threw lots into market at very low and easy rates, and building and improvement on the hill went on rapidly. The Packer, and the Utt farms were also recently purchased by enterprising parties; the former by a company of individuals, and the latter by Charles Seits and brother, who have had the same surveyed and laid out in town lots; and many improvements have already been made, so that both extremes of the borough are now being built tip and otherwise improved. In the past year, the borough was divided, by decree of Court, into the First, Second, and Third Wards, This, in connection with the macadamizing of Canal street its entire length, the erection of street lamps, the guarding by substantial nailing, the dangerous thoroughfares, and the purchase of the block adjoining the works of the company, by the Lehigh Valley Railroad, constitute the latest and most important improvements. The business of the town, at present, is confined principally to its western portion, which is about half a mile from where. the Lehigh bridge crosses to Easton; the intervening space, however, is mostly built upon, and plank and brick walks laid the entire distance for the accommodation of pedestrians, The walks and curbs in the thickly settled portion of the town are somewhat similar to those of Easton, and present as neat and substantial an appearance. The greater number of the houses are brick structures, some of them surrounded by gardens. About the centre of the town rises a small hill, called Mount Tabor. Directly behind this hill is a collection of houses, called Uttsville, though it is within the limits of South Easton, and forms part of the borough. From the appearance it has of being cut off entirely from the town, it is generally known by the above name. The cluster of houses, some of ancient, but more of modern architecture, situated between the bridge and the plank walk, in the extreme eastern portion of the borough, is commonly known by the lively name of "Peppertown." Prior to the year 1857, the prosperity of South Easton depended mainly on the furnaces and cotton-mills, which were about the only industries of the place at that time. During the hours of labor, the town presented a deserted appearance, but when the welcome sound of gong, or steam-whistle, so tided the note of relaxation, and told that the days weary toil was over. Then it was that the streets presented an animated appearance, as the tired laborers took their way towards home; and a visitor to South Easton would readily see that the people of the borough did not spend their time in idleness. Extensive shops were built for the newly completed railroad, and the labor and money expended on these, in addition to the other causes, gave a brisk impetus to the growth of the borough, and caused new dwellings to spring up in every portion of its area. At the present time, South Easton is to a great extent -sustained by these shops, furnishing, as they do, employment to a large number of the inhabitants, They are located on Iron street and the Glendon road. South Easton now contains a population of about 4,000, and more than five hundred dwellings. Within the borough limits are three rolling-mills three wire-mill one cotton-spinning one weaving-mill one grist flour-mill two blacksmith-shops three carpet weaving establishments six dry-goods and grocery stores one coal yard one lumber yard four hotels Among the principal of which is the Mount Pleasant (formerly Merchant's) Hotel situated on the highlands overlooking the Lehigh and Delaware rivers. There is also one boot and shoe shop two drug stores one attorney four physicians five commissioned Justices of the Peace There are no water-works for the convenience of the citizens of the borough; they depend entirely on cisterns and wells for their water supply. The reservoir built by the Lehigh Valley Railroad Company has been abandoned, as it was found impossible to prevent its losing the supply by leakage-whether from defect in construction, or otherwise, does not appear. Gas is supplied to the townspeople by the Easton Gas Company. THE FRANKLIN FIRE COMPANY. Which is the only fire company in this borough, was established about the year 1840. At that time it was known as the Pocahontas Fire Company, and was organized by the older citizens of the borough. It was conducted by them for a few years, when it passed into the hands of the young men. The old Pocahontas company, used a hand-engine built in New York, but after the younger men took the matter in hand, they purchased a steamer from the Franklin Fire Company of Philadelphia, and the fact of this name being handsomely marked upon the apparatus, induced the company to change their name to FRANKLIN. This was done in 1852, and they used the steamer without any alteration of the name. James Young was the president of the company. The engine-house is located on Mauch Chunk street near Centre. It is a two-story brick structure. The company has the steamer, a hose-carriage, and the old hand-engine, formerly used by the Pocahontas company. The present officers are: William Scott, President G. Young, Treasurer Chester Smith, Secretary David Laubach, Engineer THE LEHIGH VALLEY COTTON MILLS. Owned and operated (both the spinning and weaving-mills) by McKeon & Raphael. These mills are the lineal descendants of the first cotton-spinning establishment, started by Swift and Beek, in 1835. From their proprietorship the, mills passed, in 1844, into the hands of McKeon and Quinn, who enlarged and extended the business. In 1872, the firm name was changed to McKeen & Raphael, as at present. The mills now employ about three, hundred hands, and consume in manufacture, eight hundred thousand pounds of raw cotton annually, producing two and a half million yards of cotton stripes and ticks. Their motive power is furnished from the canal. The weaving-mill of to-day, is the same establishment which was built by P. S. Michler & Co as a rifle-factory. SOUTH EASTON FURNACE. This stands upon the site, and is the successor of the old blast-furnace, built in 1839, by Barnet, Swift & Company. Prior to 1852, it had fallen into possession of B. B. Thomas, who, in that year demolished the old furnace, and erected the present one on the site; its height being forty-eight feet, and width fourteen feet at the boshes. Its first production was one hundred tons per week. The blast was heated by gas, taken from the furnace, six feet below the tunnel-head. In 1854, this furnace passed into the hands of it,- present owners, the Glendon Iron Company. Its present capacity is about ten thousand tons per annum. It is under the superintendence of Mr. William Firmstone. THE ROLLING-MILLS AND WIRE-WORKS. Of Stewart & Company, are located on the banks of the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company's canal, The works were originally started about 1837, for the manufacture of nails; the proprietors of the enterprise being John Stewart, Charles Rodenbough, John Green and others. Their nails were manufactured from the best Juniata bloom iron, and when, in consequence of the high price of this first-class material, and also of other parties manufacturing from inferior stock, and underselling the market, it became a question of quitting the trade or of relinquishing their rule and using a poorer quality of iron, they abandoned the nail business; still rigidly adhering to the policy of using none but the best material, in the manufacture of their wire. This they obtained principally in the States of Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey and Maryland, although some of it is obtained in Canada. In 1852, Charles Rodenbough retired from the firm, and the firms title then became Stewart & Company, in 1864, John Stewart retired from his active connection with the mills. They are at present under the direction of Charles Stewart, E. H. Green, and Clement Stewart. The natural result of the care taken in the preparation of their wire is seen in the high reputation which it holds, and the good price which it always commands. The individual members of the firm have ever given their personal supervision to every detail of the works, leaving nothing to outside superintendents. The works at first produced about twenty-five thousand bundles of wire annually, and the increase, has been steady, but gradual, until they now turn out fully one hundred thousand bundles each year. At first there entire force was only about forty-five hands, now one hundred and seventy-five, find constant employment. In 1860 in order to meet the demands of their increasing trade, it was necessary to add another mill to the works; and in 1870, still another addition was requisite. The buildings are, now known as mills numbers one, two, and three. They have a frontage of eleven hundred feet, and are run entirely by water-power, from the Lehigh Canal. The firm have now in operation three rolling, and three wire-mills, and employ about The owners still use nothing but the best charcoal blooms. 219 THE BRIDGE MANUFACTORY. Located a short distance above the Railroad station, is under the Superintendency of William Kellogg, The Collectors office, of the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company, is located on the Lehigh, about a quarter of a mile above depot. SOCIETIES. Columbia Lodge, No. 139, I. O. of O. F. -At a special session of the Grand Lodge I. O. O. F. held at South Easton, December 3d, 1873, there were present: Theodore Schug, G. M. Jas. Young, D. G. M. Gen. P. Wright, G. W. Robert P. Horn, G. M. Gen. G. Zone, G. Secy. Wm. Datesman, G. Treas. Aaron Unangst J. Lent After the secretary read the names of the petitioners, the D. G. Master declared Columbia Lodge No. 139, duly authorized to transact business.1 G. Wm.. Carroll, V. G. Wm. M. Scott, Secy. John Young, Tress. C. I. Eaton, Asst. Secy. Number of members, ninety-six South Easton Division, No. 82, B. of L. E., instituted twenty-seventh of January, 1877, meets fourth Sunday, at Broggs Hall Chief, E. Steiner F. E., R. Bush S. E., C. Lesley F A. E., W. Hoffman S. A. E., J. Brown T. A. E., A. Zwier; Guide William Pendergast Chaplain, G. Lander DEFUNCT LODGES, I. O. O. F. Delaware Lodge, No. 73, surrendered its charter about the year 1850 and has not reclaimed it since. This lodge was located to the borough of Easton. Friends of Peace Lodge, No.-, located at South Easton, also surrendered its charter many years ago and still remains among the defunct. POSTAL FACILITIES. The first Post Office was established in South Easton, in 1858, with Terrence Barrington as Postmaster. He was succeeded by Emanuel Schilling, who, in turn, was succeeded by James Young. After him came Joseph Moyer and Aaron Demer. The office was closed in 1873 and the carrier system established, as explained in the history of the Easton Post Office. SCHOOLS. The schools of the borough have increased in number, from four, in 1853, to eleven at present, graded as follows: four primary schools, with an average of three hundred add eighty-four scholars three secondary schools, with an average of one hundred and seventy scholars two grammar schools, with eighty-eight scholars one mixed secondary and grammar school, with sixty-two scholars, one high school, with about fifty scholars. There were twelve teachers employed for these schools. There are nine School months each year. The principal of the mills, schools receives seventy-five dollars per month, and the average of the other male teachers is about sixty dollars per month. The female principal receives forty-five dollars, and the other female teachers, an average of forty dollars per month. The first School Directors which we have record of in 1843, were: Messrs. Frantz, Lane, Moyer, Abel, Martin, and Kidd. At that time there were three teachers, employed, one male and two females. Miss Ellen M. Davis and Miss Sophia Felt, at a salary of thirteen dollars per month, and Mr. H. W. Bixby at twenty-three dollars. In the year 1853, the Town Hall and the old school house, nearly opposite, were the only public school buildings in the borough. Soon after this the two-story building near the Town Hall was erected, and after this, the old engine house was purchased by the Board, but was in a few years sold again. Next, what is known as the Uttsville School House, was erected. Then the two-story brick, on the corner of Centre street and Church alley. A few years afterward, the Lehigh Hill School House was erected, and lastly in 1875, was built the addition on Church alley. The Board, at present, occupies a retired room on the corner of Berwick and Iron streets. The condition of the borough school has been, at times, very excellent, while at other times the reverse was the case. However, the rising generation of South Easton (excepting those who instead of enjoying the benefits of the public schools, are at hard labor in the manufacturing establishments from early childhood, and such as never attend, although engaged at no other business) is, perhaps, equally well trained, intellectually, with any of the surrounding districts. CHURCHES. SOUTH EASTON METHODIST CHURCH. In 1834, a class of thirty-two members was formed, and they worshiped in a school house until 1813, when they organized a Board of Trustees, and a frame church was built in which the members worshiped until 1860. They then built a commodious brick church in which the society now statedly, worship, It is located at the corner of Mauch Chunk and Delaware streets, In 1875 they built a parsonage on a part of the church lot, The property of the church is now valued at $19,000. There are one hundred and seventy-five members connected with the church and the Sabbath-schools have five hundred scholars. H. B. Manger is the present pastor. ST. JOSEPH'S GERMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH Was built in 1852. PICTURE OF ST. JOSEPH'S APPEARS HERE. The first pastor was Rev. Rudolph Ettenhoffer, who officiated until 1853, when he was succeeded by Rev. Mr. Tancer, who remained until the middle of 1860 when Rev. John Vallmyer became pastor. He remained one year, till 1861 when Rev. Joseph A. Stangel followed him, for a short term. Rev. John B. Fresch next officiated, holding the pastorate for nearly eight years, and died in 1870. He was buried in the yard near the church. His death was much lamented by his people, as he was greatly beloved. The pastorate being vacant, Rev. J. F. Fechtel took charge and remained until the middle of 1870, when he was succeeded by Rev. Hebert Schick, who continued until the close of 1874 Rev. John J. Albert next succeeded, but his stay was not long with the church, for in June, 1875, he was called away by death Rev. Jas. A. Kemmerling is the present pastor The number of communicants is about 1,100. The Benedictine Sisters have a school connected with the church, and have from two hundred and fifty to three, hundred children under their charge. The school was established about the year 1852, by Rev. Rudolph Ettenhoffer. The first school was held in the basement of the church. The first teacher was Mr. Mattes, now at Nazareth. He continued about one year, and was followed by Mr. Ruetter, (now of Allentown), who remained a teacher until 1855. Mr. F. H. Shulz continued about three years. From this time up to 1873, various teachers were employed Mr. Leo. Gotthard served as teacher for nearly five years during the intern. In 1873, the charge of the school was given to the Benedictine Sisters, of Elizabeth, N. J., who have ever since ministered to its wants, supplying teachers, &c. In 1869, the school was removed from the basement of the church to the present commodious quarters near the church. A good common school education is given in both languages, German and English, wholly at the expense of the church. Mr. F. H. Shulz, former teacher, is now organist and teacher at Holy Trinity Church, Philadelphia. BURIAL PLACES. THE ST. JOSEPH (CATHOLIC) CEMETERY. Is a handsome ground, located on St. Joseph street, near the church. The precise date, of its establishment is not known. THE SOUTH EASTON UNION CHURCH AND CEMETERY ASSOCIATION. Was incorporated in 1863. The officers are six Trustees, who have the entire management of the cemetery. The grounds are about eight acres in extent; five acres of which was taken from the "Packer farm," being donated by Hon. Asa Packer; another part was deeded by Mr. William Gould; and besides these, the cemetery includes the old "Hays Burial Ground," which forms the southeastern corner of the cemetery grounds, This old burial place was donated by Mr. John Odenwelder, in 1812. It is a very old place of interment, and many persons of prominence upon both sides of the Lehigh lie buried there. Formerly a wooden chapel stood opposite the old graveyard, on the south, but this was taken down at the time of the erection of the new brick chapel in the cemetery, about 1861. The cemetery is well-kept and a very handsome one. The brick chapel, above mentioned, is, as was its wooden predecessor, the house of worship (called the UNION CHURCH), alternately, of the Lutheran and Reformed Congregations of South Easton. ___________________________________________________________________________ 1. This was the reorganization; the Columbia having been instituted some years before, and having, after a time, surrendered its charter. 220 THE COLORED PEOPLE'S BURYING GROUND. Is an enclosure located on Nesquehoning street, and set apart for the purpose which its name denotes. The present territory of the borough extends; along the bank of the Lehigh, from the Easton Lehigh Bridge to the Borough of Glendon, a distance of about two miles, with an average breadth of about two-thirds of a mile. The entire borough is now laid out in squares, and these are again divided into lots, although many of the streets are not yet opened for public use.