Is a hamlet of about fifteen houses, situated in the eastern part of the township, on the Delaware River and canal. It was named for the family of Raubs, who were the first settler, in that vicinity. The first tavern was built there in 1805, by one of that family; and, on the establishment of the Raubsville Post Office, George Raub was appointed first postmaster. Stouts Post Office is in the southwestern part of the township. MINING Along the foot of the mountain, on the north side, and Dear the Hellertown road, leading from the Delaware to the Saucon line, is a rich deposit of hematite iron-ore, stretching the full length of the township. These ore-beds have been worked for years and yield a very good quality, and thousands of tons have been mined annually, of which the greater part has been manufactured into iron at the Glendon, Keystone, and Redington furnaces. The location of the first mines, or the time of their opening, is not known, but that iron was discovered, and mining commenced, in the early history of the county, is shown by deeds in possession of Major John Best, showing the transfer of a tract of land, in the locality of the Keystone Iron Works, from Thomas and Richard Penn, to Philip Bossart, between the years 1742 and 17-53, wherein provisions are made in regard to mines, minerals, quarries, etc. Among the oldest hematite mines, now worked, are those on property of Adam Horn, and on John Brotzman's property, now worked by the Glendon Iron Company. The ore is found from a depth of sixty to two hundred feet, and as no pumping is necessary, they have been principally worked by horse-power, although three of the mines are worked by the use of engines-to by the Glendon Company, and the other by Thomas Richard & Sons. Shaft. have been sunk and ore mined the whole distance from the Delaware to the township line, and are being worked extensively, at present, by the Glendon Company, Henry Fulmer & Hager, Adam Horn & Sons, Thomas Richard & Sons, and others. Bougher Hill Mines-Hematite ore is also found in the southeast portion of the township, on the north side of Bougher Hill, commencing at the Delaware River extending wen, and has been developed as far as property of B. Hoover. Ore, in this region, has been extensively mined on properties of Jacob Hartzell, formerly owned by F. Unangst, L. Lake, C. Rice, B. Hoover, and others. The ore from these mines is shipped principally to the Durham Iron Works, in Bucks county, about three miles distant, Major John Best was the first contractor who worked the Unangst mines extensively. He struck ore at the depth of forty-five feet, and shafted to the depth of one hundred and eighteen feet, which was the level of the Delaware River. He had a contract to furnish the Durham Iron Company 5,000 tons of ore in the year 18-58, and furnished them 5,600 tons in the time specified. No pumping was necessary in these mines, and the ore was raised by horsepower, which is true in regard to all mines in this locality, no engines being employed to the present time. Saylor Hill Mines-The mines on the north side of Saylors Mountain also of hematite ore-were opened upwards of twenty years since, by the Glendon Iron Company, and are now worked extensively by the Durham Iron Company. Magnetic Iron Ore-During the War of 1812, magnetic ore was extensively mined on the summit of the mountain, about three and one-half miles from Easton, along the Old Philadelphia road, on what is known as the "Kline property," now owned by the Glendon Iron Company. This ore was carted to the Delaware River aud shipped, by Durham boats, to Trenton or Philadelphia, That a number of these shafts were sunk, previous to 1 812, there seems to be no question, but at what time the first developments were made, cannot be ascertained. There have been other slight developments of magnetic ore in this township. Ochre.-On property owned by J. Nolf Sr., situated along the hematite iron-ore region, is a clay or ochre mine, which has been worked to some extent, being washed and prepared for market at the mines. It produces a very good quality of clay, bringing from twelve to fifteen dollars per ton, during the war, for the manufacture of paint, paper, and soap, and will be worked, from time to time, as the demand warrants. THE KEYSTONE FURNACE Was commenced June 5th, 1873. Now in possession of Henry Fulmer. The original cost of the works was about $240,000, and the additions, now in progress, will add about $18,000 more. Men employed at works and in me-, will average about sixty. The furnace production will be about 12,000 tons annually, There are also two other furnaces in this township. LIMESTONE This township has an inexhaustible supply of limestone along the Delaware, and Lehigh rivers. William Best, in the borough of Glendon, has perhaps the most extensive quarry in that vicinity, and furnishes stone for the Keystone Iron Works. UHLER'S LIME-KILNS Are situated on the Delaware Canal, where large quantities of lime are manufactured and shipped, by the canal, to the various markets. The kilns were established by Michael and John Uhler, in 1850 and 1855. The quarry is one of the best in the State. WOODRING GRIST-MILL This mill is a stone structure, situated about one mile from the Lehigh River, and was built in the year 1810, by W. Woodring. The power is furnished by a stream of spring water, which takes its rise only about one mile above. This property has never passed out of the Woodring name, being owned successively by William, Nicholas, Jacob, Enoch, and Amandus Woodring, the present owner. There are five other grist-mills in the township; two saw-mills, one distillery, and one brewery. SCHOOLS The first school taught in the township, of which we have any information was held in a log house owned by Peter Lattig, and Mr. Bittenberider Spangemberger was the teacher. There are now nine School houses in the town ship. The present school buildings are principally built of stone. The schools are kept open about six mouths in the year, and employ mate teachers during the winter session. ANCIENT CHURCH In Williams township, a short distance from the Borough of South Easton, in a field, on the southeast corner of the junction of the old Philadelphia and Hellertown roads, stood a church, known as the Old Forks Lutheran Church. This was one of the first churches built in Northampton county. All traces of this building, except the foundation, had been gone before the remembrance of the oldest citizens reared in this vicinity. We are indebted to Mrs. William Miller, an elderly lady, in whose possession the site is located, for pointing out to us the exact spot where the building had stood, and for showing us what had once been its corner-stone, now forming a part of the rear wall of her residence. She distinctly remembers her grandmothers, Mrs. Lattig and Mrs. Crutz-who were taken in church there-say that it was a rough, log building, and was suffered to go to ruin when they were still young; the logs being used for fuel by the inhabitants. There are no records from which we can ascertain when this church was built, but it must have been fully one hundred and forty years ago. Rev. Rudolph Schrenck, it member of the Muhleuberg Association, was preaching at this olden-time church, in 1752. Soon after, it was demolished. OLD WILLIAMS TOWNSHIP CHURCH. The church known by this name is located near the Saucon township line, and took the place of a log church, in 1813. It has recently been remodeled, and present,, at present, a splendid appearance. It has always been used by both the Lutheran and Reformed congregations. Among the early pastors were the Revs. William Yeager William Kemmerer - Pump the former being the first pastor. ST. JOHNS CHURCH. This is a stone structure, built by the Lutheran and Reformed congregations, A. D. 1844. There is a fine cemetery connected with it. METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. This church is situated on the old Philadelphia road, and. was built in 1872. It is a frame building, with stone basement, and is, all imposing edifice. The first church was erected on this site A. D. 1839, being also a frame building. There is a cemetery connected. STOUT'S VALLEY CHURCH. This is a small, frame building, built by the Methodist denomination, located in Stouts valley. There are no regular services held at this place. RAUBSVILLE METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH Is located at Raubsville, and was recently erected.